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Service Improvement

Model Antrian untuk

Perbaikan Pelayanan

Elements Of

Waiting Line Analysis

Queue

a single waiting line

arrivals

servers

waiting line structures

Calling population

source of customers

an infinite population assumes such a large

number of customers that it is always possible

for one more customer to arrive to be served

a finite population consists of a countable

number of potential customers

Arrival rate,

typically follows Poisson distribution

Service time

or system never clears out

Components Of A Queuing

System

Source of

customers

Arrivals

Waiting Line

or queue

Server

Served

customers

Queue discipline

first come, first served is most common

finite is limited by some physical

structure

servers the customer must go through

Single-Channel Structures

Single-channel, single-phase

Waiting line

Server

Waiting line

Servers

Multi-Channel Structures

Multiple-channel, single phase

Waiting line

Servers

Multiple-channel, multiple-phase

Waiting line

Servers

Operating Characteristics

provide optimal or best solutions

computed that describe system performance

performance characteristics that the system

will reach after a long time

Operating Characteristics

Notation

Description

(waiting and being served)

Lq

(waiting and being served)

Wq

P0

Pn

system is in use

Expected costs

Analysis

Total cost

Service

cost

Waiting Costs

Level of service

And Quality

should coincide with the minimum point on

the total cost curve

most cost-effective in the long run

Single-Channel, Single-Phase

Models

All assume Poisson arrival rate

Variations

general (or unknown) distribution of service times

constant service times

exponential service times with finite queue length

exponential service times with finite calling

population

Assumptions:

exponential service times

first-come, first-served queue discipline

infinite queue length

infinite calling population

= mean service rate

Probability that no customers P0 =

are in system

Probability of exactly n

customers in system

Pn =

=

Average number of

customers in system

Average number of

customers in queue

(1 -

()

n

( )

L =

Lq =

P0

(1 -

spends in system

W =

spends in queue

Wq =

is busy, utilization factor

idle & customer can be served

= = (1 -

) = P0

Single-Server Example

Given: = 24 per hour, = 30 customers per hour

Probability that no customers

are in system

Average number of

customers in system

Average number of

customers in queue

P0 =

(1 -

) = 1 - (24/30) = 0.20

L =

= 24/(30-24) = 4

Lq =

= 242/30(30-24) = 3.2

= 1(30-24) = 0.167 hr = 10 min

W =

spends in system

Average time customer

spends in queue

Wq =

is busy, utilization factor

Probability that server is

idle & customer can be served

=

I=

= 24/30 = 0.80

= 1 - 0.80 = 0.20

Management wants to test two alternatives to

reduce customer waiting time:

1. Hire another employee to pack up

purchases

2. Open another checkout counter

Alternative 1

Each one-minute reduction in customer waiting time avoids

$75 in lost sales

Extra employee will increase service rate to 40 customers per

hour

Recompute operating characteristics

Wq = 0.038 hours = 2.25 minutes, originally was 8 minutes

8.00 - 2.25 = 5.75 minutes

5.75 x $75/minute/week = $431.25 per week

New employee saves $431.25 - 150.00 = $281.25 / week

Alternative II

New counter costs $6000 plus $200 per week for checker

Customers divide themselves between two checkout lines

Arrival rate is reduced from = 24 to = 12

Service rate for each checker is = 30

Recompute operating characteristics

Wq = 0.022 hours = 1.33 minutes, originally was 8 minutes

8.00 - 1.33 = 6.67 minutes

6.67 x $75/minute/week = $500.00/wk - 200.00 = $300/wk

Counter is paid off in 6000/300 = 20 weeks

Counter saves $300/wk; choose alternative II

machinery and automated equipment

case of the single-server model with

general or undefined service times

Constant Service Times

Probability that no customers

are in system

Average number of

customers in queue

P0 = (1 -

Lq =

Average number of

customers in system

L = Lq +

spends in queue

Lq

Wq =

spends in system

W = Wq +

is busy, utilization factor

constant and = 0,

formula can be simplified

Lq =

Cars arrive at rate = 10/hour (Poisson)

= 60/4.5 = 13.3/hour

Lq =

Lq

Wq =

(10)2

2(13.3)(13.3-10)

M = maximum number in queue

Service rate does not have to exceed arrival rate to

obtain steady-state conditions ()

Probability that no

customers are in system

Probability of exactly n

customers in system

Average number of

customers in system

P0 =

Pn =

L =

M

(P0 )

()

for n M

(M + 1() M + 1

1 - ( )M+1

Average number of

customers in queue

Lq =

(1- PM)

spends in system

W =

(1 - PM)

spends in queue

Wq =

Quick Lube has waiting space for only 3 cars

= 20, = 30, M = 4 cars (1 in service + 3 waiting)

Probability that no

cars are in system

Probability of exactly

n cars in system

Average number of

cars in system

P0 =

Pm = (P0 )

L =

=

n=M

()

20/30

1 -20/30

1 - 20/30

20/30

= (0.38)

20

( 30 )

= 0.38

4

= 0.076

(M + 1() M + 1

1 - ( )M+1

(5(20/30) 5

1 - (20/30)

= 1.24

Average number of

cars in queue

spends in system

Average time car

spends in queue

(1- PM)

20(1-0.076)

= 1.24 = 0.62

30

Lq = L

L

W =

(1 - PM)

1.24

20 (1-0.076)

= 0.67 hours

= 4.03 min

Wq = W

= 0.067 -

30

= 0.033 hours

= 2.03 min

N = population size

Probability that no

P0 =

customers are in system

N!

n = 0 (N - n)!

Probability of exactly n

customers in system

Average number of

customers in queue

Pn =

Lq =

N!

()

(N - n)!

P0

where n = 1, 2, ..., N

(1- P0)

Average number of

customers in system

spends in queue

spends in system

L =

Wq =

W =

Lq + (1- P0)

Lq

(N - L)

Wq +

before breaking down

= 1/200 hr = 0.005/hr

Mean repair time = 3.6 hrs

= 1/3.6 hr = 0.2778/hr

Probability that no

P0 =

machines are in system

1

N

N!

n = 0 (N - n)!

1

20

20!

n = 0 (20 - n)!

= 0.652

(0.005/0.2778)n

Average number of

machines in queue

Lq = N

= 20

Average number of

machines in system

(1- P0)

0.005 + 0.2778

0.005

Wq =

spends in queue

spends in system

0.169

Lq

(N - L)

W = Wq +

= 1.74 +

1

0.278

= 1.74

= 5.33 hrs

waiting line

population

s>

P0 =

n= 0

n=s-1

1

n!

()

]+

1

s!

()(

s

s -

Probability of exactly n

customers in system

Pn =

Pn =

Probability an arriving

customer must wait

Average number of

customers in system

Pw =

L =

()

n!

()

1

s! s

n-s

for n > s

P0,

for n <= s

() (

s!

P0,

s

s -

(s - 1 ! (s -

P0 +

)P

()

spends in system

Average number of

customers in queue

spends in queue

W =

Lq =

Wq =

Lq

Utilization factor

/s

Multiple-Server Example

Customer service area

= 10 customers/area

= 4 customers/hour per service rep

s = (3)(4) = 12

P0 =

1

0!

n= 0

n=s-1

0 1

+

1!

( )

1

n!

()

]+

1

s!

()(

s

s -

1

1 1

+

2!

( )

( )

] + ( )(

1

3!

3 3(4)

3(4)-10

= 0.045

Average number of

customers in system

L=

spends in system

W =

P0 +

(s - 1 ! (s -

(10)(4) (10/4) 3

(3-1)! [3(4)-10]

()

(0.045) + (10/4) = 6

Average number of

customers in queue

Average time customer

spends in queue

Lq = L

Wq =

Pw =

Probability an arriving

customer must wait

Lq

= 6 - 10/4 = 3.5

(

s! ( )

1

10 3

(

3! ( 4 )

s

s -

)P

3(4)

3(4)-10

) (0.45) = 0.703

Improving Service

Recompute operating characteristics

Po = 0.073 prob of no customers

L = 3.0 customers

W = 0.30 hour, 18 min in service

Lq = 0.5 customers waiting

Wq = 0.05 hours, 3 min waiting, versus 21 earlier

Pw = 0.31 prob that customer must wait

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