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Control system project presentation

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System

Modelling

VIBHOR GUPTA ( 2K12/EC/188)

VIKAS ( 2K12/EC/189)

VIKAS YADAV ( 2K12/EC/190)

What is Pitch ?

Stability and control are much more

complex for an airplane, which can

move freely in three dimensions, than

for cars or boats, which only move in

two.

moves the elevator up (a position of negative

camber) and the downwards force on the horizontal

tail is increased. Theangle of attackon thewings

increased so the nose is pitched up and lift is

generally increased.

calledpitch.

The Elevator Controls Pitch

On the horizontal tail surface, the

elevator tilts up or down, decreasing or

increasing lift on the tail. This tilts the

nose of the airplane up and down.

Setup

an aircraft are shown in the figure

motion of an aircraft are a very

complicated set of six nonlinear

coupled differential equations.

However, under certain

assumptions, they can be

decoupled and linearized into

longitudinal and lateral

equations.

Aircraft pitch is governed by the

longitudinal dynamics. In this

example we will design an

autopilot that controls the pitch

of an aircraft.

mathematics

ASSUMPTIONS : 1. Aircraft is in steady-cruise at constant altitude and velocity; thus, the thrust,

drag, weight and lift forces balance each other in thex- andy-directions.

2. Change in pitch angle will not change the speed of the aircraft under any circumstance

Symbols Used :

Transfer Function

Before finding transfer function ,we need to plug in some real values .We are using values

from Airbus commercial aircraft .

Transfer Function

After a simple mathematics, We can get the transfer function for aircraft pitch

control system .

Requirements

angle the actual pitch angle overshoots less than 10%, has a rise time of less than

2 seconds, a settling time of less than 10 seconds, and a steady-state error of less

than 2%. For example, if the reference is 0.2 radians (11 degrees), then the pitch

angle will not exceed approximately 0.22 rad, will rise from 0.02 rad to 0.18 rad

within 2 seconds, will settle to within 2% of its steady-state value within 10

seconds, and will settle between 0.196 and 0.204 radians in steady-state.

From the above plot, we see that the openloop response does not satisfy the design

criteria at all. In fact, the open-loop

response is unstable.

10

response, the addition of feedback has

stabilized the system. In fact, the steadystate error appears to be driven to zero and

there is no overshoot in the response, though

the settling-time requirements are not met.

11

A proportional controller Kp will have the effect of reducing rise time but will never

reduce steady state error.

An integral control Ki will eliminate the steady state error for constant or step input but

will make the transient response slower.

A derivative control Kd will increase the stability of system ,reducing the overshoot

improving the transient response .

12

criteria are the following.

Overshoot less than 10%

Rise time less than 2 seconds

Settling time less than 10 seconds

Steady-state error less than 2%

automated tuning capabilities of

theSISO Design Toolwithin

MATLAB to design our PID

controller. First, enter the

following code at the command

line to define the model of our

plantP(s).

opened by typing sisotool(P_Pitch) at

the command line

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Proportional Control

Kp = 1

The performance is improved with proportional

controller, though the settling time is still much

too large.

14

Ki = 0.56, Kp = 1.00

The addition of integral control helped reduce

the average error in the signal more quickly.

Unfortunately, the integral control also made the

response more oscillatory, therefore, the settle

time requirement is still not met. Furthermore, the

overshoot requirement is no longer met either.

15

PID Controller

requirements as summarized below.

Overshoot = 5% < 10%

Rise time = 1.2 seconds < 2 seconds

Settling time = 5 seconds < 10 seconds

Steady-state error = 0% < 2%

Therefore, this PID controller will provide the

desired performance of the aircraft's pitch.

16

Type sisotool('rlocus', P_pitch) in the

command window. Two windows will

initially open, one is the SISO Design Task

which will open with the root locus of the

plant with gain K as shown below, and the

other is the Control and Estimation Tool

Manager which allows you to design

compensators, analyze plots, and so forth.

more to the left in the complex plane to get

it inside our desired region. One way to do

this is to employ a lead compensator.

17

The transfer function of a typical lead

compensator is the following, where

the zero is smaller than the pole,

that is, it is closer to the imaginary

axis in the complex plane.

negative half of s-plane, the system is

stable.

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19

Examination of the plots demonstrates that the settle time requirement of 10 seconds

is not close to being met. One way to address this is to make the system response

faster, but then the overshoot shown above will likely become a problem. Therefore,

the overshoot must be reduced in conjunction with making the system response

faster. We can accomplish these goals by adding a compensator to reshape the Bode

plot of the open-loop system.

Two Observed Behaviour

the gain crossover frequency is directly related to the closed-loop system's speed of

response, and

the phase margin is inversely related to the closed-loop system's overshoot.

Therefore, we need to add a compensator that will increase the gain crossover frequency and

increase the phase margin as indicated in the Bode plot of the open-loop system.

20

Lead Compensator

A type of compensator that can accomplish both of our goals is a lead compensator

A lead compensator adds positive phase to the system. Additional positive phase increases the

phase margin, thus, increasing the damping. The lead compensator also generally increases the

magnitude of the open-loop frequency response at higher frequencies, thereby, increasing the

gain crossover frequency and overall speed of the system. Therefore, the settling time should

decrease as a result of the addition of a lead compensator. The general form of the transfer

function of a lead compensator is the following.

21

22

Closed loop response with lead compensator

23

satisfy all of our design requirements.

24

Conclusions

controller design.

(71.5 degree) both are positive , the system is

stable.

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