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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

(2161902)

Topic:
Engine Emission &
Their Control

Submitted to,

O Prof. Manish Mistry

Submitted by,

Ujval Malaviya
(130760119029)

Introduction to Engine Emission


All IC engines produce undesirable emissions as a result of combustion.
The emissions of concern are unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen
such as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide, and solid carbon particulates.

These emissions pollute the environment and contribute to acid rain, smogodors, and respiratory and
other health problems.

HC emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles include a number of toxic substances such as benzene,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1,3-butadiene and three aldehydes (formaldehyde,
acetaldehyde, acrolein).

Carbon dioxide is an emission that is not regulated but is the primary greenhouse gas responsible for
global warming.

Vehicular Emissions
Types of Vehicular Emissions
The fuel loss of vehicles may be due to emissions or refueling. The emissions maybe evaporative or
exhaust emissions. The fuel losses in a vehicle are shown in Fig.

Emission sources in a gasoline fuelled


car

Emission sources in a diesel engine


powered Vehicle

Exhaust emissions: Exhaust emissions are those which are emitted through the exhaust pipe when the
vehicle is running or is started. Hence, the exhaust emissions maybe of 2 types - start up emissions and
running emissions.

Startup emissions: Emissions when the vehicle is started initially. Based on how long the vehicle
had been turned off after use, they may be cold start and hot start. Cold start refers to when the
vehicle is started suddenly after a long gap of use, whereas, hot start refers to when the vehicle is
started without the vehicle getting enough time to cool off after its previous use.

Running emissions: Emissions during normal running of the vehicle, i.e., when the vehicle is in a
hot stabilized mode.

Evaporative emissions: These include running losses and hot soak emissions produced from fuel
evaporation when an engine is still hot at the end of a trip, and diurnal emissions (daily temperature
variations).

Exhaust Pollutants
The pollutants which are emitted from the exhaust pipe of the automobiles are known as exhaust
pollutants. They are formed as a result of combustion of the fuel in the engine. These pollutants are
harmful to the atmosphere and living things in particular. The major types of exhaust pollutants are
discussed in the following sections.

Nitrogen Oxides:
Combustion under high temperature and pressure emits Nitrogen dioxide.
With enough heat (above 2500F / 1370C), nitrogen and oxygen in air-fuel mixture combines to form
NOx emissions.
It is reddish brown gas.
An engine with high compression ratio, lean air-fuel mixture, and high-temperature thermostat will
produce high combustion heat, resulting in formation of NOx.
They affect the respiratory system.

Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds:


Hydrocarbons result from the incomplete combustion of fuels.
Mostly related to ignition problems.
Their subsequent reaction with the sunlight causes smog and ground level Ozone formation.
VOCs are a special group of Hydrocarbons. They are divided into 2 types methane and non methane.
Prolonged exposure to some of these compounds (like Benzene, Toluene and Xylene) may also cause
Leukemia.
Effect could be eye, throat, and lung irritation, and, possibly cancer.

Sulphur Oxides:
Combustion of petroleum generates Sulfur Dioxide. It is a colorless, pungent and non flammable gas.
It causes respiratory illness, but occurs only in very low concentrations in exhaust gases. Further
oxidation of forms and thus acid rains.

Carbon Monoxide:
It is a product of the incomplete burning of fuel and is formed when Carbon is partially oxidized.
It is an odorless, colorless gas, but is toxic in nature.
It reaches the blood stream to form Carboxyhemoglobin, which reduces the flow of Oxygen in blood.
A rich air-fuel would increase CO; lean air-fuel mixture would lower CO emissions.

Carbon Dioxide:
It is an indicator of complete combustion of the fuel.
Although it does not directly affect our health, it is a greenhouse gas which causes global warming.

Lead:
It is a malleable heavy metal. Lead present in the fuel helps in preventing engine knock.
Lead causes harm to the nervous and reproductive systems.
It is a neurotoxin which accumulates in the soft tissues and bones.

Particulate Matter:
These are tiny solid or liquid particles suspended in gas (soot or smoke).
Particulate Matter in higher concentrations may lead to heart diseases and lung cancer.

Causes of Production of air


Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC):
Pollutants
Size of combustion chamber: Smaller combustion chambers, allows for more heat to remain inside the
combustion chamber that can aid in the burning of fuel.

Valve overlap: Decrease valve overlap, is used to decrease exhaust emission. A larger valve overlap
increases power but dilutes incoming fuel mixture and requires a richer air fuel mixture at lower engine
speed therefore increasing HC and CO emissions.

Temperature: Higher combustion chamber temperature, are used to reduce HC and CO emissions.
Air-fuel mixture: Leaner air-fuel mixtures help fuel burn better lower HC and CO emissions.
Spark plug: Wider spark plug gaps, are used to burn the leaner fuel mixture and helps prevent spark plug
fouling.

Causes of Production of air


Pollutants
Oxides of Nitrogen ():

High isentropic bulk modulus of biodiesel: The high isentropic bulk modulus of biodiesel causes an
artificial advance in injection timing relative to petrodiesel, and higher NO x emissions. However,
Zhang and Boehman found much higher NOx emissions with common rail system, and concluded that
injection timing shift alone could not be the reason for biodiesel NO x effect.
More Stoichiometric Combustion and High Heat Release Rate: Mueller et al. observed increased
stoichiometric burning of biodiesel combustion which could lead to rise in temperature and NO x.
High Adiabatic Flame Temperature: The adiabatic flame temperature of biodiesel is reported to have
slightly higher than petrodiesel due to complete combustion resulting from fuel bound oxygen.

Pollution control devices

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System


Catalytic Converter
Exhaust Gases Recirculation (EGR) System
Fuel Evaporative Emission Control (EVAR) System
Total Emission Control Package

Positive Crankcase Ventilation


At the edges of the combustion
Chamber of System
the engine
(PCV)
(above the piston tops), there is a thin layer of gasoline that
does Not burn up.
pollutant.

This gasoline Constitutes an air

Uses engine vacuum to draw blow-by gases into the intake


manifold for reburning in the combustion chamber.

Vacuum or electronic controlled, mounted on the valve


cover.

To keep gasoline from returning to the air, this gasoline is


recirculated Back into the combustion chamber.

Catalytic Converter
A catalytic

converter is an emissions
control
device
that
converts
toxic pollutants in exhaust gas to less toxic
pollutants
by catalyzing a
redox reaction (oxidation or reduction).

All catalytic converters are built in a


honeycomb or pellet geometry to expose the
exhaust gases to a large surface made of one
or more noble metals: platinum, palladium
and rhodium.

Rhodium used to remove NO and platinum


used to remove HC and CO.

Lead and sulfur in the exhaust gas severely


inhibit the operation of a catalytic converter
(poison).

Catalytic Converter
Types of catalytic converter:
Mini Catalytic Converter is placed close to the engine
exhaust manifold.

Two-way Catalytic Converter can only reduce HC &


CO (Platinum).

Catalytic Converter
Three-way Catalytic Converter reduces HC, CO
& NOx (Platinum and Rhodium).

Dual-bed Catalytic Converter normally has both a


three-way (reduction) and a

two-way (oxidation) catalyst.


Mixing chamber is provided between the two.
Air is forced into the mixing chamber to help
burn the HC and CO emissions.

Three way Catalytic Converter


A three-way catalysts will function correctly only if the exhaust gas composition corresponds to nearly
(1%) stoichiometric combustion.
If the exhaust is too lean NO are not destroyed
If the exhaust is too rich CO and HC are not destroyed

A closed-loop control system with an oxygen sensor in the exhaust is used to determine the actual A/F
ratio and used to adjust the fuel injector so that the A/F ratio is near stoichiometric.

A three-way catalytic converter has three simultaneous tasks:


Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen:
2NOx xO2 + N2

Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide:


2CO + O2 2CO2

Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water:


CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 xCO2 + (x+1)H2O.

Three way Catalytic Converter


Since thermal efficiency is highest for slightly lean conditions it may seem that the use of a catalytic
converter is a rather severe constraint.

The temperature at which the converter becomes 50% efficient is referred to as the light-off
temperature.

The converter is not very effective during the warm up period of the engine.

Measurement of Pollutants in
Exhaust Gases
Pollutants are measured in gm/km or gm/kWh.

Principles used in measurement of these pollutants are different as per different chemical compound
which is as follows:

Measurement of CO concentration
Measurement of concentration
Measurement of CO and HC concentration

Measurement of CO
Concentration by Non-dispersive
Infra-red

Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR)


detectors are the industry standard
method of measuring the concentration
of carbon oxides (CO & CO2).

Each constituent gas in a sample will


absorb some infra red at a particular
frequency. By shining an infra-red beam
through a sample cell (containing CO or
CO2), and measuring the amount of
infra-red absorbed by the sample at the
necessary wavelength, a NDIR detector
is able to measure the volumetric
concentration of CO or CO2 in the
sample.

Measurement of Concentration by
Cheiluminescence
As mentioned earlier refers to a combination of both NO and . If is subject to high temperature of around
1000C breaks down to NO. The sample will thus contain only NO. If NO is reacted with ozone the
following exothermic reaction takes place.

Since the reaction is exothermic the formed is


in the excited state and hence emits radiation.
This is called Chemiluminescence. The
emitted radiation is proportional to the
concentration of and hence provides a method
of measuring concentration. Schematic of the
chemiluminescent
analyzer is shown in
Figure.

Measurement of CO and HC
Concentration
This 5-gas analyzer is available with several different options. It includes sensors for: O , CO , CO, HC,
2

and NOx. The unit can be upgraded to send the display values to Bluetooth compatible units where it can
be monitored and recorded. Optional PC interface also allows remote display and recording of the data as
well.

Introduction of Norms
The first emission norms were introduced in India in 1991 for petrol and 1992 for diesel vehicles. These
were followed by making the Catalytic converter mandatory for petrol vehicles and the introduction of
unleaded petrol in the market.

On 29 April 1999 the Supreme Court of India ruled that all vehicles in India have to meet Euro I or India
2000 norms by 1 June 1999 and Euro II will be mandatory in the NCR by April 2000. Car makers were
not prepared for this transition and in a subsequent judgement the implementation date for Euro II was
not enforced.

In 2002, the Indian government accepted the report submitted by the Mashelkar committee. The
committee proposed a road map for the roll out of Euro based emission norms for India. It also
recommended a phased implementation of future norms with the regulations being implemented in major
cities first and extended to the rest of the country after a few years.

Based on the recommendations of the committee, the National Auto Fuel policy was announced officially
in 2003. The roadmap for implementation of the Bharat Stage norms were laid out till 2010. The policy
also created guidelines for auto fuels, reduction of pollution from older vehicles and R&D for air quality
data creation and health administration.

Need for uniform emission norms


The practice of limiting improved emissions standards only to a few cities and to a smaller
proportion of urban population has been criticised as violating the fundamental right to healthy life
for all. This also does not allow lorries to move to cleaner fuel and technology and they heavily
pollute cities during transit and aggravate pollution in cities. Many persons and establishments try
to purchase Bharat Stage III vehicles and fuel from outside city limits in order to take advantage of
lower prices, even though these are used in cities.

Bharat stage & Euro norms


Standard
India 2000

Bharat Stage II

Reference
Euro 1

Euro 2

Year

Region

2000

Nationwide

2001

NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata,


Chennai

2003.04

NCR*, 13 Cities

2005.04

Nationwide

2005.04

NCR*, 13 Cities

2010.04

Nationwide
NCR*, 13 Cities

Bharat Stage III

Euro 3

Bharat Stage IV

Euro 4

2010.04

Bharat Stage V

Euro 5

(To Be Skipped)

Bharat Stage VI

Euro 6

2020.04 (Proposed)

Entire Country

* National Capital Region (Delhi) Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur,
Lucknow, Sholapur, Jamshedpur And Agra

Comparison between Bharat


stage & Euro norms
The Bharat Stage norms have been styled to suit specific needs and demands of Indian conditions. The
differences lie essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission standards
are exactly the same.

For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries. In India, where the
average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 C, the test is done away with.

Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested. A speed of 90 km/h is
stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 km/h for Euro-III, keeping emission limits the same in both cases

In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the mass emission test
measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to
unloaded car weight in Europe. In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to
achieve the desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here.

Emission standards for passenger cars


CO
HC
Stage
Year

HC+NOx
g/km

NOx

PM

PN
#/km

Gasoline Vehicles
1991

14.3

2.0

1996

8.68

3.00

1998*

4.34

1.50

India2000

2000

2.72

0.97

BS II

2005

2.2

0.5

BS III

2010

2.3

0.20

0.15

BS IV

2010

1.0

0.10

0.08

BS V

n/ab

1.0

0.10d

0.06

0.0045e

2020a

1.0

0.10d

0.06

0.0045e

1992

17.3

2.7

1996

5.0

2.0

India2000

2000

2.72

0.97

0.14

BS II

2005

1.0

0.7

0.08

BS III

2010

0.64

0.56

0.50

0.05

BS IV

2010

0.50

0.30

0.25

0.025

BS VI
Diesel Vehicles

6.0x1011e

Tier
Diesel
Euro 1

Date

CO

THC

NMHC

NOx

HC+NOx

PM

P [#/km]

July 1992
2.72 (3.16) 0.97 (1.13) 0.14 (0.18) January
Euro 2
1.0
0.7
0.08
1996
January
Euro 3
0.64
0.50
0.56
0.05
2000
January
Euro 4
0.50
0.25
0.30
0.025
2005
September
Euro 5a
0.50
0.180
0.230
0.005
2009
September
Euro 5b
0.50
0.180
0.230
0.005
61011
2011
September
Euro 6
0.50
0.080
0.170
0.005
61011
2014
Petrol (Gasoline)
Euro 1
July 1992
2.72 (3.16) 0.97 (1.13) January
Euro 2
2.2
0.5
1996
January
Euro 3
2.3
0.20
0.15
2000
January
Euro 4
1.0
0.10
0.08
2005
September
Euro 5
1.0
0.10
0.068
0.060
0.005**
2009
September
Euro 6
1.0
0.10
0.068
0.060
0.005**
61011***
2014
* Before Euro 5, passenger vehicles > 2500kg were type approved aslight commercial vehiclesN1-I
** Applies only to vehicles with direct injection engines, ***610 12/km within first three years from Euro 6 effective

Thank
you