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Emission Control

Systems
Manish Mistry

What are emissions?


Where they come from?

Emission Categories
Transitional low- Super ultra lowemission vehicle
emission
(TLEV)
vehicle (SULEV)
Low-emission
Partial zero
vehicle (LEV)
emission
vehicle (PZEV)
Ultra lowemission vehicle Zero emission
(ULEV)
vehicle (ZEV)
Clean fueled
continued
vehicle (CFV)

Exhaust Gases
Hydrocarbons (HC)
Molecules of unburned gasoline

Carbon Monoxide (CO)


A byproduct of combustion

Oxides of nitrogen (NOX)


Formed when nitrogen and oxygen
molecules combine at high
temperature
continued

Exhaust Gases
Oxygen
Part of the air in the air/fuel mixture
Not a pollutant

Carbon Dioxide
Formed when carbon molecules join
with oxygen molecules during
combustion process
continued

Emission Sources
Engine crankcase
Combustion gases that have bypassed
the piston rings
Can emit untreated gases to atmosphere
Pollutes engine oil

Fuel system
Unburned fuel vapors

Exhaust
Combustion gases that contain harmful
pollutants
6

Automobile emission control can be grouped into


following major families

Crankcase emission controlpositive


crankcase ventilation system control HC emission
from the engine crankcase
Evaporative emission control this system
control emission of HC from fuel tank ,pump,and
carburetor
Exhaust emission control :
Air injection system
Engine modification
Spark timing
Exhaust gas re-circulation system
Catalytic converter system

Typical PCV System

Chapter 31

continued

PCV Operation
Idle or deceleration
Blowby gasses flow through a small
opening in the closed valve.

Part throttle
PCV spring moves the valve to
increase the opening.

Wide open throttle


Valve is open and allows more blowby
gasses to flow.
continued
Chapter 31

Evaporative Emission System


Components
Evaporative emission system
Uses a closed fuel system to keep fuel
vapors (HC) from entering atmosphere
Fuel vapors are trapped in a charcoal
canister
Engine vacuum is used to purge canister
with fresh air, sending fuel vapors to
engine for burning

continued
Chapter 31

An Evaporative Emissions
System

continued
Chapter 31

Charcoal Canister

continued
Chapter 31

Knock Sensors
Knock sensors are engine mounted
sense vibrations caused by
detonation.
A piezoelectric sensing element is
mounted in the knock sensor, and a
resistor is connected parallel to this
sensing element.
The sensing element changes this
vibration into an analog voltage
continued
which is sent to the knock sensor

Chapter 31

Knock Sensors

continued
Chapter 31

5. Air Injection
Since. no internal combustion engine is 100%
efficient, there
will always be some unburned fuel in the exhaust.
This
increases hydrocarbon emissions. To eliminate this
source of
emissions an air injection system was created.
Combustion requires fuel, oxygen and heat.
Without any one
of the three combustion cannot occur. Inside the
exhaust
manifold there is sufficient heat to support
combustion, if we
introduce some oxygen than any unburned fuel
will ignite.

Common Types of EGR


Valves
Vacuum-operated
Positive backpressure

Vacuum-operated
Negative backpressure

Digital
Three solenoid type

Linear
continued
Chapter 31

A Vacuum-Operated EGR
Valve

continued
Chapter 31

A Linear EGR Valve

continued
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Digital

Common EGR Systems


Twin solenoid system
EGR vacuum regulator (EVR) system
Pressure feedback electronic (PFE)
sensor system
Pressure transducer (EPT) systems

continued
Chapter 31

EGR System with DPFE


Sensor

continued
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EGR System with EVR


Solenoid

continued
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An Oxidizing Catalytic
Converter

continued
Chapter 31

A Three-way Catalytic
Converter

continued
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An Example of a Secondary
Air System

continued
Chapter 31

EMISSION CONTROL NORMS IN SI AND CI


ENGINE
Level of Emission

2/3 Wheelers ##
2-Stroke

Norms

* Intake, exhaust,
Euro I /India 2000

4 Wheelers

4-Stroke

4-Stroke
* Intake, exhaust,

* 4-Stroke engine

combustion

technology

optimization
* Catalytic converter

combustion
optimization
*Carburetor
optimization

*
Euro II /

Secondary

air * Hot tube

injection

Bharat Stage II

* Catalytic converter
* CNG / LPG
(3 wheelers only)

* Secondary air
injection
* CNG / LPG
(3 wheelers only)

* Fuel injection
* Catalytic converter
* Fixed EGR
* Multi-valve
* CNG/LPG
*

EuroIII/

Bharat Stage III

* Fuel injection

* Fuel injection

* Catalytic converter

* Carburetor+
catalytic converter

Fuel

injection

+catalytic
converter
* Variable EGR
* Variable valve timing
* Multi-valve
* On-board diagnostics
system
* CNG/LPG
* Direct cylinder

Euro IV /
Bharat Stage IV

* To be developed

* Lean burn
* Fuel injection+
catalytic converter

injection
* Multi-brick
catalytic converter
* On-board
system

diagnostics

Emission control norms in CI engine


Level Of Emission Norms

Technology Options
Intake, exhaust and combustion optimisation

Euro I / India 2000

FIP~700-800 bar, low sac injectors


High swirl
Naturally aspirated
Turbo charging

Euro II /
Bharat Stage II

Injection pressure > 800 bar, moderate swirl


High pressure inline / rotary pumps, injection rate control
VO nozzles
Re-entrant combustion chamber
Lube oil consumption control
Multi valve,
Low swirl high injection pressure > 120 bar

Euro III /
Bharat Stage III

Rotary pumps, pilot injection rate shaping


Electronic fuel injection
Critical lube oil consumption control
Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT)
Inter-cooling
Particulate trap

Euro IV /
Bharat Stage IV

NOx trap
On board Diagnostics system
Common rail injection-injection pressure>1600 bar
Fuel Cell
CNG/LPG

Summary
Unburned hydrocarbons, carbon
monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen are
three types of emissions being
controlled in gasoline engines.
The PCV system removes blowby
gases from the crankcase and
recirculates them to the engine
intake.
continued
Chapter 31

Summary
An evaporative (EVAP) emission
system stores vapours from the fuel
tank in a charcoal canister until they
routed back to the engine.
The EGR system allows exhaust
gasses to be recirculated into the
intake manifold to lower combustion
temperatures and reduce NOX
emissions.
continued
Chapter 31

Summary
Many secondary air injection
systems pump air into the
exhaust ports during engine
warm-up, and deliver air to the
catalytic converters with the
engine at normal operating
temperature.

Chapter 31