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EURO standards & Bharat

stages.
MANISH K.MISTRY

The need to control the emissions from automobiles


Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of
nitrogen created during the combustion process.
There are also hydrocarbons emitted as a result of
vaporization of gasoline and from the crankcase.
The clean air act of 1977 set limits to the amount of
each of these pollutants that could be emitted from
an automobile.
In my seminar, I am giving a brief idea of emission
standards in light and heavy vehicles.

INTRODUCTION
Emission requirements for light road vehicles
have existed in the EU since the early 1970s.
While the first requirements for heavy vehicles
came in at the end of the 1980s. Compared
with the US and some European countries .
The EU was late in introducing requirements
that were strict enough to force the use of
catalytic converters in petrol vehicles.

The current exhaust emission requirements regulate


1. Nitrogen oxides (NOx),
2. Hydrocarbons (HC),
3.Carbon monoxide (CO) and
4.Particulate matter (PM).
carbon monoxide is less significant from
the point of view of health and the environment.
For light vehicles (under 3.5 tonnes) the emission
standards differ depending on the engine type
(petrol or diesel)
designated "Euro" and followed by a number
( Euro I, II, III..).
The standards for both light and heavy vehicles are

EURO TEST CYCLES


Emissions are measured using a standardized test
cycle that is designed to simulate real driving.
For light vehicles the entire vehicle is tested and
emissions are measured in g/km. For heavy vehicles
the engine is bench-tested and the results are
expressed in relation to the engine power (g/kWh).
Light vehicles are subjected to a transient cycle in
which the vehicle follows a prescribed driving
pattern that includes accelerations, decelerations,
changes of speed and load, etc.

Heavy vehicles two different test


1.transient (ETC, European Transient Cycle)
2.stationary (ESC, European Stationary Cycle).
The stationary cycle consists of a sequence of constant
engine speed and load modes. Smoke opacity is
measured on the ELR (European Load Response) test.
The Euro III standard (year 2000), manufacturers have the
choice of using either of these tests.
For Euro IV (year2005) limit values the emissions have to be
determined using both the ETC and the ESC/ELR tests.

EUROPEAN STATIONARY
CYCLE (ESC)
Emission certification of heavy duty diesel engine
Engine is tested on dynamometer over steady state modes.
The engine must be operated for the prescribed time in each
mode, completing engine speed and load changes in the first
20 seconds.
The specified speed held within 50 rpm and the
specified torque held within 2% of max torque, final
results in g/kWh .
Particulate matter emissions are sampled on one filter over the
13 modes.

EUROPEAN TRANSIENT CYCLE


(ETC)

The ETC cycle has been developed by the FIGE Institute,


Aachen, Germany, based on real road cycle measurements of
heavy duty vehicles .

Different driving conditions are represented by three parts of


the ETC cycle.

urban, rural and motorway driving.

The duration of the entire cycle is 1800s. The duration of each


part is 600s.

Part one represents city driving with a maximum speed of 50


km/h, frequent starts, stops, and idling. (urban)

Part two is rural driving starting with a steep acceleration


segment. The average speed is about 72 km/h (rural).

Part three is motorway driving with average speed of about 88


km/h. (motorway)

LIGHT VEHICLES

vehicles under 3.5 tones, i.e. both passenger cars and light
commercial vehicles.

The Euro 1 requirements (91/441/EEC),

Euro 2 was introduced in 1996-97 (94/12/EC).

in 1998 the standards for Euro 3 and 4 (98/69/EC) were agreed, to


take effect in 2000 and 2005 respectively.

Fuel quality standards were also stiffened as a consequence of the


project, both to reduce emissions and to permit the introduction of
new emission control technology.

sulphur content for petrol was set at 150 ppm in 2000 and 50
ppm in 2005, and for diesel at 350 ppm in 2000 and 50 ppm in
2005. As the result of a new decision in 2003 (2003/17/EC) the
limit for both fuels will be reduced to 10 ppm in 2009.

European Parliament and Council Directive (EC).

Council Directive (EEC).

EU STANDARDS FOR HEAVY VEHICLES

HEAVY VEHICLES

Road vehicles heavier than 3.5 tones, came in 1988 (88/77/EEC).

Euro I standards for medium and heavy engines were introduced in


1992-93 (91/542/EC). The same directive also laid down standards
for Euro II, which took effect in 1995-96.

A directive (1999/96/EC) was adopted in 1999 giving standards for


Euro III (2000), IV (2005) and V (2008).

Emission Control Devices

Emission control devices installed on the


automobile are:
EGR VALVE,
CATALYTIC CONVERTER,
AIR PUMP,
PCV VALVE,
CHARCOAL CANISTER.

EMISSION CONTROL NORMS IN SI AND CI ENGINE


Level of Emission
Norms

2/3 Wheelers ##
2-Stroke

4-Stroke

* Intake, exhaust,
Euro I /India 2000

combustion optimization
* Catalytic converter

Euro II /
Bharat Stage II

4 Wheelers
4-Stroke
* Intake, exhaust,

* 4-Stroke engine
technology

combustion optimization
*Carburetor optimization

* Secondary air injection

* Hot tube

* Fuel injection

* Catalytic converter

* Secondary air

* Catalytic converter

* CNG / LPG

injection

* Fixed EGR

* CNG / LPG

* Multi-valve

(3 wheelers only)

(3 wheelers only)

* CNG/LPG
* Fuel injection +catalytic

EuroIII/ Bharat Stage III

* Fuel injection

* Fuel injection

* Catalytic converter

* Carburetor+
catalytic converter

converter
* Variable EGR
* Variable valve timing
* Multi-valve
*

On-board

diagnostics

system , CNG/LPG
* Direct cylinder
Euro IV /
Bharat Stage IV

* To be developed

* Lean burn
* Fuel injection+
catalytic converter

injection
* Multi-brick
catalytic converter
* On-board
system

diagnostics

Emission control norms in CI engine


Level Of Emission Norms

Technology Options
Intake, exhaust and combustion optimisation

Euro I / India 2000

FIP~700-800 bar, low sac injectors


High swirl
Naturally aspirated
Turbo charging

Euro II /
Bharat Stage II

Injection pressure > 800 bar, moderate swirl


High pressure inline / rotary pumps, injection rate control
VO nozzles
Re-entrant combustion chambrer
Lube oil consumption control
Multi valve,
Low swirl high injection pressure > 120 bar

Euro III /
Bharat Stage III

Rotary pumps, pilot injection rate shaping


Electronic fuel injection
Critical lube oil consumption control
Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT)
Inter-cooling

Particulate trap
Euro IV /
Bharat Stage IV

NOx trap
On board Diagnostics system
Common rail injection-injection pressure>1600 bar
Fuel Cell
CNG/LPG