Sir Mudassir Hussain

Usman Mukhtar
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Thevenin's Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single voltage source and series resistance connected to a load. A series combination of Thevenin equivalent voltage source V0 and Thevenin equivalent resistance Rs Thevenin’s theorem permits the reduction of a two-terminal dc network with any number of resistors and sources (Complex Circuit) to one Equivalent circuit having only one source and one internal resistance in a series configuration shown below

Thevenin’s Theorem
Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits are techniques use to simplify circuits. Figure shows the Thevenin equivalent circuit which represents any circuit from multiple sources (dependent and independent) and resistors.

Rangkaian berintangan yang m engandungi punca-punca bergantung dan tak bergantung

V Th




Original and Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Measuring & Calculating Vth by MultiSim:
 Circuit above shows how to measure the Thevenin Voltage (Vth). That is measured 4V.  The Circuit below shows how to measure Thevinin’s Resistance (Rth):  Conclusion: To measure Vth, remove the load resistance (unknown), then measure the voltage across open circuit terminal  (Vo.c. = Vth).  The Circuit below, shows how to measure and calculate the Thevinin Resistance (Rth)

Measured and Calculated Rth
 To measure Rth, with load resistance removed, also remove and replace source voltage by a short (jumper wire), then measure and calculate the Thevenin resistance across the Open circuit terminals:  Rth is measured 6 Ohms.  Considering the jumper wire, 6 and 3 Ohms resistors are in parallel, and result is in series with 4 Ohm resistor.  Rth (Cal.)= [(6 x 3)/(6+3) + 4] =2 +4 = 6 Ohms

Original & Thevenin Equivalent Circuit:

Using Ohm’s Law to Calculate Unknown Current

 As you can see from this simple Tutorial example, the load current for original and the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit are Identical.  This verifies our solution and demonstrate how to measure and calculate the unknown element current by using Ohm’s Law for Thevnin Equivalent Circuit:  IL = (Vth)/(Rth + RL) = (4V) / (6+6)  IL = 4/12 = 0.333A => Calculated!  Compare this with measured, they are exactly equal! Now you can apply this to other Problems.

Refer to the Figure 4.6, find the Thevenin equivalent circuit.
5Ω + 25 V 20 Ω 3A v1 4Ω + a

vab b

In order to find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit shown in Figure 4.6, calculate the open circuit voltage, vab. Note that when the a, b terminals are open, there is no current flow to 4Ω resistor. Therefore, the voltage vab is the same as the voltage across the 3A current source, labeled v1. To find the voltage v1, solve the equations for the singular node voltage. By choosing the bottom right node as the reference node,

Current isc can be found if v2 is known. By using the bottom right node as the reference node, the equationfor v2 becomes
By solving the above equation, v2 = 16 V. Therefore, the short circuit current isc is

v 2 − 25 v 2 v + −3+ 2 = 0 5 20 4

The Thevenin resistance RTh is

Figure 4.8 shows the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the Figure 4.6.

Figure 4.8

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