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Psychological Disorders

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A harmful dysfunction in which behaviour is judged to be atypical,


disturbing, maladaptive and unjustifiable.

Psychological Fields
Many fields in psychology relate to psychological disorders:

Abnormal Psychology

Health Psychology

Clinical Psychology

Counselling Psychology

Abnormal Psychology

Abnormal psychologyis a field of psychology that


deals with psychopathology and abnormal
behaviour. Clinical psychologists,
psychotherapists, and counsellors typically work in
this field. Mental health professionals help assess,
diagnose and treat a wide variety of mental
disorders including anxiety and depression.

Generally considered that abnormal psychology is


the umbrella term to deal with all psychological
disorders.

Health Psychology

The central strategy practiced within health


psychology is the bio-psycho-social design. The
British Health Society explains that health and
disease are the effects of a blending of biological,
psychological and social factors. Biological
determinants consist of genetic conditions and
inherited personality traits. Psychological factors
are anxiety levels, personality features and
lifestyle. Social determinants consist of cultural
views, family relationships and support systems.

Causes of Disorders

Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology is concerned with the


assessment, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
of mental disorders. While all clinical
psychologists are interested in mental health,
there are actually a wide variety of sub-specialties
within this field. Some of these specialty areas
include child mental health, adult mental health,
learning disabilities, health psychology etc.

Counselling Psychology

This field is one of the largest individual areas


within psychology. It is centred on treating clients
experiencing mental distress and a wide variety of
psychological symptoms. The Society of
Counselling Psychology describes the field as an
area that can improve interpersonal functioning
throughout life by improving social, and emotional
health as well as addressing concerns about
health, work, family, marriage, and more.

What are we studying?

Abnormal Behaviour

Psychopathology

Mental Disorder

Mental Illness

Deviant Behaviour

The Disclaimer

Please do not start diagnosing yourself, your


family, friends, boyfriends/girlfriends,
neighbours, classmates, teachers or anyone else
you can think of

It will only lead to conflict and trouble

Sensitivity, please
It

is important to remember, people


are not just their disorders!

People

are not schizophrenics,


alcoholics, autistics, phobics or
bipolars- but rather people with
schizophrenia, alcoholism, autism etc.

How are people with


psychological disorders
portrayed in the
media?

Are all disorders


viewed the same?

Whos Normal?
Your

neighbor has physical complaints and sees


several doctors weekly.

22 year old college student smokes 4-5 marijuana


joints per day, has a 3.8 GPA, has a part-time job
and a solid long term relationship.

Rachel

a three year old girl, has been caught


several times urinating in the corner at day-care.

35 year old very happily married man enjoys


wearing womens clothes and underwear on the
weekends when he and his wife go out on the
town.

Who decides whats


NORMAL?

WE do!

What Is Abnormal Behaviour?

A psychological disorder is characterised as:

Non-typical
Socially unacceptable
Distressing/harmful to the person

who exhibits it or to the people


around them

How can we classify and


describe disorders?

The American Psychological Associations division


38 is health psychology and they focus on
understanding the relationship between health
and illness. This division concentrates on
examining the psychological determinants that
influence health, and they contribute information
to the health care policy system.

DSM 5

DSM-5 used in the USA.


TheInternational Statistical
Classification of Diseases and Related
Health Problems (ICD-10) used
internationally and will replace DSM in
the USA.

Diagnostic
Statistical Manual
of Mental
Disorders: the big
book of disorders.

DSM will classify


disorders and
describe the
symptoms.

DSM will NOT


explain the causes
or possible cures.

Goals of the DSM and ICD


To provide a system for

diagnosing disorders
To improve the reliability of

diagnoses
To make diagnoses consistent

with research evidence and


clinical experiences.

Approaches and Disorders


Psychological Approach
Psychodynamic

Cause of the Disorder


Internal, unconscious drives

Humanistic

Failure to strive to ones potential or


being out of touch with ones feelings.

Behavioural

Reinforcement history, the


environment.

Cognitive
Sociocultural
Biological/Neuroscience
(Evolutionary)

Irrational, dysfunctional thoughts or


ways of thinking.
Dysfunctional Society
Organic problems, biochemical
imbalances, genetic predispositions.