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SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR STIMULI

1.Humans have five senses 2.Our senses help us to detect objects and the changes in the surroundings. 3.Our five senses are:- Sight

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

Hearing

Touch

Taste

Smell

SENSORY ORGANS AND THEIR STIMULI 1. Humans have five senses 2. Our senses help us to

4.These senses are found in parts of the body called sensory organ.

The five sensory organs found in human beings are,

The five sensory organs found in human beings are, detects touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold

detects touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold

The five sensory organs found in human beings are, detects touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold

detects light

detects taste

The five sensory organs found in human beings are, detects touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold
The five sensory organs found in human beings are, detects touch, pain, pressure, heat or cold

detects smell

detects sound

What sensory organs this woman use for hear the voice in telephone? EAR

What sensory organs this woman use for hear the voice in telephone?

EAR

What sensory organs this mans use for touch ? SKIN

What sensory organs this mans use for touch ?

SKIN

What sensory organs this woman use to see the microorganism using microscope? EYE

What sensory organs this woman use to see the microorganism using microscope?

EYE

What sensory organs this girl use to smell the flowers ? NOSE

What sensory organs this girl use to smell the flowers ?

NOSE

What sensory organs this boy use for taste the fruit? TONGUE

What sensory organs this boy use for taste the fruit?

TONGUE

6.The changes that occur in the environment are called stimuli. 7.Examples of stimuli are chemical substances, changes in temperature and light intensity. 8.The relation between the stimuli, the five senses and the sensory organ

Sensory organ

Sense

Types of stimuli

Skin

Touch

Pressure, pain, heat

Nose

Smell

Chemicals

Tongue

Taste

Chemicals

Ears

Hearing

Sound

Eyes

Sight

Light

The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response

The Pathway from Stimulus to Response

The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
The Pathway from Stimulus to Response
Structures of the Human Skin 1. The skin is the sensory organ that detects touch .

Structures of the Human Skin

1.The skin is the sensory organ that detects touch.

2.It contains receptors that

detect pain, heat, cold, touch, and pressure.

4.Our skin consists of three basic layers.

4. Our skin consists of three basic layers.

4.Our skin consists of three basic layers. 5.These are the:

  • - Epidermis

  • - Dermis

  • - fat layer

Epidermis

   
Epidermis
   
 

Dermis

   
Dermis
   
 

Fat layer

   
Fat layer
   
Structure of the human skin

Structure of the human skin

7.The sensitivity of the skin depends on the

  • i) thickness of the epidermis

    • - the thinner the epidermis, the more sensitive the skin is to the stimulus

ii) number of receptors present

  • - the more receptors found on the skin, the more sensitive is that part of the skin

8. Sensitivity of skin at different parts of the human body

  • i) Neck, lips and fingertips

These parts have thin epidermis and many receptors that are sensitive toward the touch stimulus

ii) Palms

This part has many receptors that are sensitive towards cold and heat stimuli

iii) Elbows are less sensitive to touch because the epidermis is thick and the number of the epidermis is less

9.The parts of the body usually chosen by the doctor for injection are along the upper arm and the buttocks. This is because these parts have thick epidermis and fewer receptors

9. The parts of the body usually chosen by the doctor for injection are along the
Structures of the Nose air in

Structures of the Nose

air in
air in

1.The nose is the sensory organ for smell 2. Smell are carried by certain chemicals in the air 3.When we breathe, these chemicals go through our nose

1. The nose is the sensory organ for smell 2. Smell are carried by certain chemicals
Different Areas of the Tongue 1. The tongue is the sensory organ of taste. 2. Sensory

Different Areas of the Tongue

Different Areas of the Tongue 1. The tongue is the sensory organ of taste. 2. Sensory

1.The tongue is the sensory organ of taste. 2. Sensory cells that detect taste are called taste receptors. 3.These cells are found on the upper surface of the tongue 4.Taste receptors can detect to sweet, salty, sour and bitter tastes

Taste areas of the tongue

bitter

sour sour salty salty sweet
sour
sour
salty
salty
sweet
COFFEE NO SUGAR

VINEGAR

COFFEE NO SUGAR

COFFEE NO SUGAR

SALTED FISH
SALTED FISH

SALTED FISH

5.When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste receptors in our tongue.

6.Messages are then sent from the taste receptors to the brain through the nerves

7.In the brain, the taste of the dissolved substances in interpreted as sweet, sour, salty, bitter or as a combination

Dissolved

substance

Taste

receptors

5. When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste
5. When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste

message

brain
brain
5. When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste
5. When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste
5. When we eat or drink, dissolved substances in our mouth are detected by the taste

Type of

taste

Structure of the Human Ear 1. The ear is the sensory organ for hearing 2. The

Structure of the Human Ear

1.The ear is the sensory organ for hearing

2.The human ear can be divided into three parts

i)

external ear

ii)

middle ear

iii)

inner ear

Structure of the Human Ear middle ear Inner Outer ear ear
Structure of the Human Ear
middle
ear
Inner
Outer ear
ear
auditory ossicles oval window nerves pinna cochlea ear canal eardrum middle ear Inner Outer ear ear
auditory
ossicles
oval window
nerves
pinna
cochlea
ear canal
eardrum
middle
ear
Inner
Outer ear
ear

Part of the human ear

 

Pinna

Outer

 

ear

Ear canal

Eardrum

Middle

Ossicles

ear

Oval

window

Inner

Cochlea

ear

Auditory

nerve

Function Collects sound waves Directs sound waves to the eardrum Vibrates when sound waves hit it Magnify the vibrations and transfer them from the eardrum to the oval window Sends sound vibrations from the middle ear to the inner ear Converts sound vibrations to nerve impulses Sends impulses from the cochlea to the brain

3.The route of sound waves entering the ear is summarised as follows:

3. The route of sound waves entering the ear is summarised as follows:
Semicircular canal Eustachian tube
Semicircular canal
Eustachian tube
  • 4. The semicircular canals and the Eustachian tube do not play any role in the hearing mechanism

  • 5. Semicircular canal – controls the balance of the body

Limitations of hearing

• We cannot hear all the sounds around us. Different people have different limitation of hearing. For example, old people generally cannot hear as well as young people. Our ear drums become less sensitive to sound as we grow older. Our ears cannot hear sounds of either very high pitch or very low pitch.

Hearing aids

A hearing aid is a device made specially for people who are deaf.

A loud speaker is used to amplify sound.

A stethoscope is used by doctors to hear our heart beats.

Hearing aids • A hearing aid is a device made specially for people who are deaf.
Structure of the Human Eye 1. The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds

Structure of the Human Eye

1.The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds to light

Structure of the Human Eye 1. The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds
Structure of the Human Eye 1. The eye is the sensory organ of sight and responds

Parts of the eye and their function

Structure of the eye

Function

Sclera

Protects the eye Maintains the shape of the eye

Cornea

Helps to focus the light onto the retina

Choroid

Prevents the reflection of light in the eye Supplies food and oxygen to the eye tissues

Iris

Controls the size of the pupil

Pupil

Controls the amount of light entering the eye

Blind spot

The least sensitive part of the retina

Structure of the eye

Eye lens Ciliary body Suspensory ligaments

Aqueous and vitreous humour

Retina

Optic nerve

Function

Focuses light and form images on the retina Changes the thickness of the lens Hold the eyes lens in position

Maintains the shape of the eye Helps to focus light onto the retina

The innermost layer where images are formed and produces impulses to be conveyed to the brain by the optic nerves

Brings impulses from the retina to the brain

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations

The pupil in a normal Situation

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations The pupil in a normal Situation

When a person move from a bright area into a dark area

•The pupil enlarges •More light enters the eye •After a while the eye can see in
•The pupil enlarges
•More light enters the eye
•After a while the eye can
see in the dark

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations

The pupil in a normal Situation

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations The pupil in a normal Situation

When a person move from a dark area into a bright area

•The pupil becomes smaller •Less light enters the eye •The eye is not ‘blinded’ by excess
•The pupil becomes
smaller
•Less light enters the eye
•The eye is not ‘blinded’
by excess light

How Do We See

How Do We See

The path of light through the eye to the brain

Light

Light

The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour

cornea

cornea

The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour
The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour

aqueous humour

aqueous humour

vitreous humour vitreous humour
vitreous humour
vitreous humour

eye lens

eye lens

The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour

pupil

pupil

retina

retina

The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour

optic nerve

optic nerve

The path of light through the eye to the brain Light Light cornea cornea aqueous humour

brain

brain

Properties of Light 1. Light is a form of energy 2. Light travels at a speed

Properties of Light

Properties of Light 1. Light is a form of energy 2. Light travels at a speed

1.Light is a form of energy

2.Light travels at a speed 300 000 000 m/s

3.Light travel in straight lines

Reflection of light

1.Light can be reflected 2. Reflection is the bouncing of light off a surface on which the light falls 3. A smooth and shiny opaque surface, like a plane mirror, reflects nearly all the light rays that fall on it

Reflection of light 1. Light can be reflected 2. Reflection is the bouncing of light off

When you look in the mirror, you can see an image of yourself

4. According to the Law of Reflection:-

i. The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal are all on the same plane normal
i.
The incident ray, reflected ray and the normal
are all on the same plane
normal
reflected
incident
ray
ray
plane mirror

ii. the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

normal angle of angle of incidence reflection reflected incident ray ray plane mirror
normal
angle of
angle of
incidence
reflection
reflected
incident
ray
ray
plane mirror

5. The knowledge of the reflection of light is used in the following instruments

  • i. the periscope – used in submarines to see the situation on the surface of the sea

5. The knowledge of the reflection of light is used in the following instruments i. the

Light coming

from the candle

hits the first

mirror and

reflects it to the

second mirror.

The reflected

light will then

enter your eyes

6. The light ray is reflected when it is directed towards the plane mirror. The characteristics of the image formed are as follows:-

  • i. virtual (cannot be formed on a screen)

ii. vertical iii.of the same size as the object iv.the distance of the image behind the mirror is the same as the distance of the object in front of the mirror

  • v. laterally inverted

An arties drew the picture below. Can you find eight mistakes in this drawing? One has been circled for you

An arties drew the picture below. Can you find eight mistakes in this drawing? One has

Refraction of light

1.Light does not pass through opaque objects, but it will pass through anything that is transparent

Refraction of light 1. Light does not pass through opaque objects, but it will pass through
Refraction of light 1. Light does not pass through opaque objects, but it will pass through

2. Any substance that light passes through is called medium such as air, water and glass

2. Any substance that light passes through is called medium such as air, water and glass

3.When light travels from one transparent medium to another at an angle, it will bend. This effects is called refraction.

4.The following shows the three situations of the movement of light rays through two different media

a)

4. The following shows the three situations of the movement of light rays through two different

(less dense medium)

(denser medium)

(less dense medium)

(denser medium)

b)

b) (less dense medium) (denser medium)

(less dense medium)

(denser medium)

c)

c) (less dense medium) (denser medium)

(less dense medium)

(denser medium)

5. Daily phenomena of refraction of light are shown below:

Pencil in a glass of water appears bent

5. Daily phenomena of refraction of light are shown below: Pencil in a glass of water

A fish in a river will look as if it is closer in the water due to refraction too

A fish in a river will look as if it is closer in the water due

The coin cannot be seen in P The coin can now be seen appears to be closer to the surface in Q

Q P
Q
P

EYE DEFECTS

1.We can see distant or near objects clearly because the images of these objects can be focused on the retina

Image formed

on the retina is

clear

2. Defects of the eye occur when the image does not fall on the retina

3. The usual eye defects are i) short-sightedness ii) long-sightedness iii) astigmatism

3.The usual eye defects are

i)

short-sightedness

ii) long-sightedness iii) astigmatism

Short-sightedness

1. Can see near objects clearly but distant objects appear blur 2. Short-sightedness occurs because the image of a distant object falls in front of the retina

Short-sightedness 1. Can see near objects clearly but distant objects appear blur 2. Short-sightedness occurs because

Image formed

in front of the

retina

3.The defect may be caused by

  • i) abnormally long eyeballs

ii) eye lens that are abnormally thick 4.To correct short-sightedness, a concave lens is used to refocus the image on the retina

Image formed

on the retina is

clear

3. The defect may be caused by i) abnormally long eyeballs ii) eye lens that are

Long-sightedness

1. Can see distant objects clearly but near objects appear blur 2.Long-sightedness occurs because the image of a distant object falls behind the retina

Image formed

behind the

retina

3.The defect may be caused by

  • i) abnormally short eyeballs

ii) eye lens that are abnormally thin 4.To correct short-sightedness, a convex lens is used to refocus the image on the retina

Image formed

on the retina is

clear

Summary of short-sightedness and long-sightedness and

correction of defects

Summary of short-sightedness and long-sightedness and correction of defects
Summary of short-sightedness and long-sightedness and correction of defects
Summary of short-sightedness and long-sightedness and correction of defects

Astigmatism

1. Astigmatism is caused by the irregular curvature of the cornea 2.In many cases, astigmatism causes blurred vision for either near or distant objects

Multiple focal

points in front

of the retina

3. Special cylindrical lenses are used to correct this type of vision

3. Special cylindrical lenses are used to correct this type of vision
LIMITATION OF THE SENSE OF SIGHT
LIMITATION OF THE SENSE OF SIGHT

Optical illusion

Sometimes what we see may

Sometimes what we see may

not appear to be the real

not appear to be the real

thing. This is because the

thing. This is because the

brain cannot interpret

brain cannot interpret

accurately what is actually

accurately what is actually

seen by the eye. This

seen by the eye. This

phenomenon is known as an

phenomenon is known as an

optical illusion

optical illusion

What do you see first? A vase or two faces Which central square is the biggest

What do you see first?

A vase or two faces

What do you see first? A vase or two faces Which central square is the biggest

Which central square

is the biggest

Which one is the tallest?

Which one is the

tallest?

Are these lines parallel? Are the sides of the square curved or straight lines?

Are these lines parallel?

Are these lines parallel? Are the sides of the square curved or straight lines?

Are the sides of the

square curved or

straight lines?

Are A and B curved or straight lines Which line is longer, PQ or RS?

Are A and B curved or straight lines

Are A and B curved or straight lines Which line is longer, PQ or RS?

Which line is longer,

PQ or RS?

Blind spot

1.The blind spot is a point on the retina of the eye that cannot detect any images

Blind spot 1. The blind spot is a point on the retina of the eye that

2. At a certain distance, the dot disappears from sight because the dot falls on the blind spot of your eye 3.The image cannot be detected because the blind spot does not have any nerve receptors that can detect the light impulses received

STEREOSCOPIC VISION AND MONOCULAR VISION
STEREOSCOPIC VISION AND MONOCULAR
VISION

Stereoscopic vision

1. Stereoscopic vision is vision involving both eye 2.The brain will combine the vision from both eyes to form a three-dimensional image

STEREOSCOPIC VISION AND MONOCULAR VISION Stereoscopic vision 1. Stereoscopic vision is vision involving both eye 2.

3.This enables us to estimate distances accurately 4.The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow 5.Predators usually have stereoscopic vision

3. This enables us to estimate distances accurately 4. The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow
3. This enables us to estimate distances accurately 4. The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow
3. This enables us to estimate distances accurately 4. The stereoscopic field of vision is narrow

Monocular vision

1.Monocular vision is vision involving one eye only. 2.This makes estimating distances accurately difficult 3.Monocular vision produces a flat image 4.The monocular field of vision is wide 5.Prey usually have monocular vision

Monocular vision 1. Monocular vision is vision involving one eye only. 2. This makes estimating distances
chicken fish deer goats

bird

chicken

chicken fish deer goats

fish

deer

chicken fish deer goats

goats

ALAT OPTIK UNTUK MENGATASI HAD DERIA

PENGLIHATAN

ALAT OPTIK UNTUK MENGATASI HAD DERIA PENGLIHATAN
ALAT OPTIK UNTUK MENGATASI HAD DERIA PENGLIHATAN
ALAT OPTIK UNTUK MENGATASI HAD DERIA PENGLIHATAN
Optical devices

Optical devices

1. Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them 2. The response by plants to
1. Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them 2. The response by plants to

1.Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them 2.The response by plants to stimuli is called tropism

1. Plants can detect and respond to stimuli around them 2. The response by plants to

3.There are two types of tropism:-

  • a) positive tropism – response by plants towards the stimulus

  • b) negative tropism – response by plants away from the stimulus

4.Plants have different kinds of responses such as:-

  • - phototropism

  • - geotropism

  • - hydrotropism

  • - thigmotropism

  • - nastic movement

Types of tropism and their stimuli

Type of tropism

Stimulus

phototropism

light

geotropism

gravity

hydrotropism

water

thigmotropism

touch

nastic movement

touch

5.Examples of tropic responses and nastic movement are given as follows:

PHOTOTROPISM

Phototropism is the

movement of plants in

response to light

The leave and stem of the

plant grow in the direction

of the light source (positive

phototropism)

The roots grow in the

opposite direction of the

light source (negative

phototropism)

5. Examples of tropic responses and nastic movement are given as follows: PHOTOTROPISM  Phototropism is

GEOTROPISM

Geotropism is the

movement or growth

of plants response to

gravity

The roots downwards

towards gravity

(positive geotropism)

The leave and stem

(shoots) grows

upwards against

gravity( negative

geotropism)

GEOTROPISM  Geotropism movement or growth of plants response to gravity  The roots downwards towards

HYDROTROPISM

Hydrotropism is the

movement or growth of

plants in response to

water

The root grows

towards the water

source (positive

hydrotropism)

The shoots grow away

from the water source

(negative

hydrotropism)

water
water

THIGMOTROPISM

Thigmotropism is the

movement or growth of

plants in response to

touch

Roots grow away from

solid objects such as

stone (negative

thigmotropism)

Stems tend to grow

towards objects they

come into contact with

(positive

thigmotropism)

THIGMOTROPISM  Thigmotropism movement or growth of plants in response to touch  Roots grow away
THIGMOTROPISM  Thigmotropism movement or growth of plants in response to touch  Roots grow away

NASTIC MOVEMENT

Nastic movement is the

response of plants to

touch

This response does not

depend on the direction

of the stimuli

For example, the

mimosa pudica folds

their leaves when they

are touched

NASTIC MOVEMENT  Nastic movement is the response of plants to touch  This response does
NASTIC MOVEMENT  Nastic movement is the response of plants to touch  This response does
NASTIC MOVEMENT  Nastic movement is the response of plants to touch  This response does

Types of tropism and their stimuli

Type of tropism

Stimulus

Phototropism

Light

Geotropism

Gravity

Hydrotropism

Water

Thigmotropism

Touch/contact

Nastic movement

touch

Differences between the responses of the plant shoots and plants roots

Shoot

 

Type of tropism

Root

Positive

Positive Phototropism Negative

Phototropism

Positive Phototropism Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative Geotropism Positive

Geotropism

Negative Geotropism Positive

Positive

Negative

Negative Hydrotropism positive

Hydrotropism

Negative Hydrotropism positive

positive

KELAS MAKANAN
KELAS MAKANAN

1.Makanan ialah sumber tenaga bagi semua benda

hidup.

membaiki and menggantikan tisu rosak kepentingan makanan membina
membaiki and
menggantikan tisu
rosak
kepentingan
makanan
membina
sel baru Memanaskan badan
sel baru
Memanaskan
badan
menyihatkan badan tumbesar
menyihatkan
badan
tumbesar

an

membekalkan tenaga untuk melakukan kerja
membekalkan
tenaga untuk
melakukan kerja

2.Makanan dikelaskan kepada tujuh kelas utama.

kelas makanan karbohidrat lemak garam mineral Air pelawas Protein Vitamin
kelas makanan
karbohidrat
lemak
garam mineral
Air
pelawas
Protein
Vitamin

Karbohidrat

1.Karbohirat terdiri dari unsur karbon, hidrogen and oksigen 2.Karbohidrat terbahagi kepada tiga jenis iaitu:

  • (a) kanji

  • (b) gula

  • (c) selulos

1. Antara contoh-contoh makanan yang kaya dengan

karbohidrat ialah:

Karbohidrat 1. Karbohirat terdiri dari unsur karbon, hidrogen and oksigen 2. Karbohidrat terbahagi kepada tiga jenis
Karbohidrat 1. Karbohirat terdiri dari unsur karbon, hidrogen and oksigen 2. Karbohidrat terbahagi kepada tiga jenis

rice

potato

Karbohidrat 1. Karbohirat terdiri dari unsur karbon, hidrogen and oksigen 2. Karbohidrat terbahagi kepada tiga jenis

breads

banana

banana

banana

1.Fungsi karbohidrat

  • a) Karbohidrat ialah sumber tenaga utama kita. Karbohidrat membekalkan tenaga untuk kita melakukan aktiviti harian seperti

berjalan, bernafas dan bekerja.

1. Fungsi karbohidrat a) Karbohidrat ialah sumber tenaga utama kita. Karbohidrat membekalkan tenaga untuk kita melakukan
1. Fungsi karbohidrat a) Karbohidrat ialah sumber tenaga utama kita. Karbohidrat membekalkan tenaga untuk kita melakukan
1. Fungsi karbohidrat a) Karbohidrat ialah sumber tenaga utama kita. Karbohidrat membekalkan tenaga untuk kita melakukan

b)karbohidrat juga membekalkan tenaga untuk proses fizikal . Contohnya proses tumbesaran dan pembiakan.

b)karbohidrat juga membekalkan tenaga untuk proses fizikal . Contohnya proses tumbesaran dan pembiakan . growth reproduction

growth

b)karbohidrat juga membekalkan tenaga untuk proses fizikal . Contohnya proses tumbesaran dan pembiakan . growth reproduction

reproduction

c)Haba

yang

dibebaskan

daripada

karbohidrat

membantu kita mengekalkan suhu badan.

c)Haba yang dibebaskan daripada karbohidrat membantu kita mengekalkan suhu badan.

PROTEIN

1.Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2.Makanan yang kaya dengan protein termasuk:

PROTEIN 1. Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2. Makanan yang kaya dengan protein

ikan

PROTEIN 1. Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2. Makanan yang kaya dengan protein

daging

PROTEIN 1. Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2. Makanan yang kaya dengan protein

kacang

PROTEIN 1. Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2. Makanan yang kaya dengan protein

putih telur

PROTEIN 1. Protein terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen, oksigen dan nitrogen 2. Makanan yang kaya dengan protein

susu

3.Protein diperlukan untuk membina sel-sel baru:

  • - untuk pertumbuhan

  • - untuk menggantikan tisu yang rosak 4.Kanak-kanak yang membesar memerlukan banyak protein. Kekurangan protein akan menyebabkan penyakit yang dikenali sebagai kwashiorkor.

3. Protein diperlukan untuk membina sel-sel baru: - untuk pertumbuhan - untuk menggantikan tisu yang rosak
3. Protein diperlukan untuk membina sel-sel baru: - untuk pertumbuhan - untuk menggantikan tisu yang rosak

kwashiorkor

LEMAK

1.Lemak terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. 2.Fats are found in animal products such as butter and fish oil, egg yolk

LEMAK 1. Lemak terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. 2. Fats are found in animal products
LEMAK 1. Lemak terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. 2. Fats are found in animal products

butter

egg yolk

LEMAK 1. Lemak terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. 2. Fats are found in animal products

fish oil

3.Fats are found in plant products such as coconut oil

LEMAK 1. Lemak terdiri daripada karbon, hidrogen dan oksigen. 2. Fats are found in animal products

3.The functions of fat include:-

  • - supplying energy

  • - as an insulator of heat

  • - protecting the internal organs

  • - dissolving some vitamins in the body like vitamin A, D, E and K

VITAMIN

1. Vitamins are required in small quantities only

2. Vitamins are classified into two groups:-

  • i) Vitamin soluble in water – vitamin B and C

ii) Vitamin soluble in fat – vitamin A, D, E and K

3. Vitamins protect the body from various types of diseases and maintains the health of the body

rickets bone fracture in adults Deformation of bones in children

rickets

rickets bone fracture in adults Deformation of bones in children

bone fracture

in adults

rickets bone fracture in adults Deformation of bones in children

Deformation of

bones in children

scurvy

scurvy

MINERAL SALTS

1.Our body required small quantities of mineral salts 2.Mineral salts help to maintain or body’s health 3.Our body needs minerals like calcium, iodine, iron, sodium, phosphorus and potassium

goiter

goiter

FIBRE

1.Fibre keeps our intestines healthy and working properly 2.Food containing fibre can move along quickly and easily through the intestines 3.Without fibre we may constipate 4.The main sources of roughage are vegetables and fruit

FIBRE 1. Fibre keeps our intestines healthy and working properly 2. Food containing fibre can move

WATER

WATER
WATER
WATER

The functions of water include:

  • - controlling the body temperature

  • - removing excretory products like carbon dioxide and urea from our body

  • - controlling the concentration of blood

  • - transporting food during digestion

  • - as a lubricant

  • - as a medium for biochemical reactions in the body

The functions of water include: - controlling the body temperature - removing excretory products like carbon
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET
THE IMPORTANCE OF A BALANCE DIET

1. A balanced diet is made up of food that has all the nutrients in the right quantity

2. A balanced diet is necessary for:

  • i) supplying the required energy

ii) balanced body growth ii) maintaining the health of the body

iv) preventing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets

THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1.The digestive system consists of all the organs in the body that help in the digestion of food

2.The alimentary canal is made up of the mouth, aesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and anus (starts from the mouth and ends at the anus)

THE HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 1. The digestive system consists of all the organs in the body

3.Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand alternately through the process of peristalsis

3. Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand

food

muscular wall of the food canal

3. Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand
3. Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand
3. Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand

The parts of the digestive system with its respective

function

Part of the

 

digestive system

Function

1. Mouth

Food is broken down to small parts

  • 2. Oesophagus

Sends food to the stomach

  • 3. Stomach

Digestion protein begins

  • 4. Duodenum

Digestion of fat, protein and starch

  • 5. Small intestine

Completes digestion

  • 6. Pancreas

Secretes pancreatic juice

  • 7. Liver

Secretes bile

Part of the

 

digestive system

Function

  • 8. Large intestine

Reabsorption of water

  • 9. Rectum

Stores faeces

10. Anus

Expels faeces from the body

The passage of food through the alimentary canal

anus

anus

mouth mouth oesophagus oesophagus duodenum duodenum Large Large Small Small rectum rectum intestine intestine intestine intestine
mouth
mouth
oesophagus
oesophagus
duodenum
duodenum
Large
Large
Small
Small
rectum
rectum
intestine
intestine
intestine
intestine

MOUTH

1. Digestion of food starts in the mouth

MOUTH 1. Digestion of food starts in the mouth 2. Food is chewed by our teeth

2.Food is chewed by our teeth and it is broken down into smaller pieces

3.The food in our mouth is mix with saliva and an enzyme, amylase 4. An enzyme is a substance that speeds up a specific chemical reaction in the body 5. Amylase digest starch into maltose (sugar)

amylase Starch maltose
amylase
Starch
maltose

3.However, food is usually not kept long enough in the mouth for all the starch to be broken down into simple sugars 4.Our tongue rolls the partially digested food into small balls which are then swallowed into the oesophagus or gullet

OESOPHAGUS

movement of food

muscles

contract, pushing the food forward

food

muscles relax, allowing the tube to open wider

1.The oesophagus is a narrow tube with smooth muscles in its wall

2. After food enters the oesophagus, contractions of the smooth muscles push the food towards the stomach

3.This action is called peristalsis

4. No digestion takes place in the oesophagus

STOMACH

STOMACH 1. Food is mixed with gastric juices in the stomach 2. Gastric juices are secreted

1.Food is mixed with gastric juices in the stomach

2.Gastric juices are secreted from the cells of the stomach. Gastric juices contain:-

  • - hydrochloric acid

  • - enzymes ( rennin and pepsin

3.The function of hydrochloric acid include:-

  • - providing an acidic medium for enzyme action

  • - killing bacteria found in food

  • - neutralising the alkaline property of saliva and stopping the action of salivary amylase enzymes

4.Pepsin digests proteins into peptones

pepsin protein peptones
pepsin
protein
peptones

4. Rennin coagulates milk in the stomach to help in the enzymic action of pepsin

liquid milk rennin solid milk protein protein
liquid milk
rennin
solid milk
protein
protein

SMALL INTESTINE

1.The small intestine is where most pf the digestion of food take place 2.The deodenum is the first

SMALL INTESTINE 1. The small intestine is where most pf the digestion of food take place

part of the small intestine 3.The deodenum receives bile and pancreatic juice 4.Bile is produced by the liver and is stored in the

gall bladder 5.The bile flows from the gall bladder into the deodenum

6.Fungsi hempedu adalah: -

  • - pengemulsian lemak

  • - preparation of an alkaline medium for enzyme action

6. Fungsi hempedu adalah: - - pengemulsian lemak - preparation of an alkaline medium for enzyme

7.Pancreatic juice which is produced by the pancreas cells, contain

three types of enzymes

  • - amylase

  • - protease

  • - lipase

amylase starch maltose protease peptones amino acids lipase Fat fatty acids + glycerol
amylase starch maltose
amylase
starch
maltose
protease peptones amino acids
protease
peptones
amino acids

8.The small intestine produces enzymes which digest maltose into glucose (simple sugar)

9. Digestion is completed in the small intestine

10.The digested food is absorbed by the villi and is then passed on to the blood vessels

USUS BESAR

8. Usus besar menyerap sebahagian besar air mineral dan garam dalam sisa. 9.Makanan yang tidak di cerna dibuang daripada badan melalui dubur sebagai tinja.

USUS BESAR 8. Usus besar menyerap sebahagian besar air mineral dan garam dalam sisa. 9. Makanan
PROSES PENYERAPAN MAKANAN TERCERNA
PROSES PENYERAPAN MAKANAN TERCERNA

1.Hasil pencernaan (glukosa, asid amino dan asid lemak dan gliserol)diserap di usus kecil. 2.Permukaan dalaman usus kecil tidak licin. 3. Ia diliputi oleh berjuta-juta unjuran halus yang di namakan vilus 4. Villus mempunyai saluran darah dan lacteal dalam strukturnya.

villi

PROSES PENYERAPAN MAKANAN TERCERNA 1. Hasil pencernaan (glukosa, asid amino dan asid lemak dan gliserol)diserap di
PROSES PENYERAPAN MAKANAN TERCERNA 1. Hasil pencernaan (glukosa, asid amino dan asid lemak dan gliserol)diserap di

5. Dinding villi membenarkan hanya molekul kecil seperti molekul glukosa untuk melalui mereka tetapi tidak molekul yang lebih besar seperti molekul kanji.

6.Kecekapan penyerapan makanan tercerna di usus kecil boleh ditingkatkan dengan:

  • - bilangan vilus yang banyak menambahkan luas

permukaan

  • - dinding vilus sangat nipis iaitu senipis satu sel,

ini membolehkan penyerapan makanan tercerna

berlaku dengan cepat

REABSORPTION OF WATER AND DEFECTION
REABSORPTION OF WATER AND DEFECTION

Reabsorption of Water in the Large Intestine

REABSORPTION OF WATER AND DEFECTION Reabsorption of Water in the Large Intestine

Pennyahtinjaan

1.Penyahtinjaan adalah proses di mana najis dibuang daripada badan melalui rektum disebabkan oleh pengecutan otot dalam dinding dubur.

Pennyahtinjaan 1.Penyahtinjaan adalah proses di mana najis dibuang daripada badan melalui rektum disebabkan oleh pengecutan otot

2. Apabila rektum penuh dengan tinja, rektum menjalani peristalsis dan dibantu oleh pengecutan abdomen, akan menolak tinja keluar melalui dubur .

3. Jika seseorang individu mempunyai kesukaran membuaang air besarl, dia dikatakan menghidapi sembelit.

4. Sembelit berkait rapat dengan tabiat makan kita. Beberapa penyebab sembelit adalah seperti

berikut:-

  • - Makan makanan tanpa pelawas

  • - Kekurangan makanan dalam usus

  • - Kekurangan air dalam diet

  • - Penyakit yang menyebabkan kehilangan selera makan

Makan sarapan yang

berkhasiat

Makan sarapan yang berkhasiat

Do not do other activities while you are eating

Do not eat snacks such as sweets

and biscuits before your meals

Avoid junk and fast food

Always make sure that the food you

eat and the place you go to are clean

Always make sure that the food you eat and the place you go to are clean

Take very little sugar

Take very little sugar

Choose boiling, grilling or

steaming instead of frying

Choose boiling, grilling or steaming instead of frying

Do not add extra salt to your food;

consume it in small amounts

Do not add extra salt to your food; consume it in small amounts

Eat a lot of vegetables

and fruits to get fibre

Eat a lot of vegetables and fruits to get fibre

Remember that your body needs water and in hot

weather you lose it easily through perspiration.

So drink 6-8 glasses of water everyday

Remember that your body needs water and in hot weather you lose it easily through perspiration.

Drink fruit juice, milk or mineral water

instead of carbonated drinks

Drink fruit juice, milk or mineral water instead of carbonated drinks

Unhealthy eating habits cause various health problems

Excessive nutrient

Health problems

sugar

Tooth decay, obesity, diabetes

salt

High blood pressure, heart

problems, kidney damage

fat / oil

Heart problem, high blood

pressure

Lack of nutrient

Health problems

protein

Kwashiorkor in children

vitamins

Lower immunity to deases

FOOD PYRAMID

FOOD PYRAMID

Malaysia is also famous for its diverse cultures and

religious beliefs. For example, the dining culture of

different people often conforms to their sensitivities

and religious beliefs. Some Malaysians pick up their

food using :

Amalan pemakanan yag s