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THE HUMAN SKELETON

o ALEXVANDER JEKIUS
o JOB JOHAN JONAH
o JONATAHAN BINODOR
o MUHAMMAD MAZDI
o NICOLE LEE WEI WEI

HUMAN
SKELETON

o APPENDICULAR
SKELETON

o AXIAL SKELETON

AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETON

o Skull

AXIAL
SKELETON

o Vertebral column
o Ribs
o Strenum[Breastbone]

o Pectoral girdle
o Humerus

APPENDICULAR
SKELETON

o Ulna
o Radius

o Carpals
o Phalange

o Pelvic girdle

s
o

o Femur

o Tarsals

o Tibia
o Fibula

Patella

o Metatarsals
o Phalanges

o Contains 22 bones,include

cranial and facial bones.

o Cranial bones protects the

brains
o Facial bones protect and

provide support for digestive


and respiratory system.
o The skulls held together by

suture[A].

Vertebral Column
o Spine/Backbone
o Composed of vertebrae
o Encloses and protects the spinal cord.
o Serves as a point of attachment for
the ribs, pelvic girdle and the muscles
of the back and neck.
o Cervical, thoracic and lumbar are
moveable.
o Sacrum and coccyx are immovable.
o Invertebral discs in the vertebrae
permits movement of the vertebral
column and absorb vertical shock.
o Varies in size and shape.
o Vertebral foramen encloses the spinal
cords.

Laluan
saluran darah
dan saraf

Cervical Vertebra
o Have transverse foramen through which blood vessels and nerve
pass.

Thoracic Vertebrae
o Have spinous processes that are long directed downwards.
o Spinous and transverse processes serve as points ofattachment of muscles and
ligaments.

The Lumbar Vertebra


o Largest and strongest.
o Have large centrums which bear the weight of the lower back.

Thoracic cage
o Ribs & Strenum.
o It encloses and protects
the organs in the
thoracic cavity and
upper abdominal cavity.
o Consist 12 pairs of ribs.
o The sternum is a
flat,narrow bone located
in the centre of the
anterior thoracic wall.

Sacral vertebrae

Sacrum

Coccyx

APPENDICULAR
SKELETON

Pectoral girdle
o Consist of clavicle and scapula.
o Clavicle; S-shaped bones that is
located above the first rib.
o Scapula; Flat triangular bone which
stretches from the shoulder to
vertebral column.[a.k.a shoulder
blades]

Upper limb
o Humerus-longest and
largest bone of the upper
limb
o It connected with scapula.
o In the elbow,it connected
with ulna and radius.
o Wrist of hands consist of 8
small bones[carpals].
o Palm of hand consist 5
bones called metacarpals.
o Phalanges-the bones of the
finger.2 phalanges in the
thumb,three phalanges in
the next four finger.

Ilium

Pubi
s
Ischiu

Obturator
Foramen

m
Public Symphysis
o Pelvic girdle -consist of two hipbones that provide strong and
stable support for vertebral column.
Note;-The hip bones are joined to each other at a joint called pubic
symphysis.

Lower Limb

o Femur is the
longest,heaviest,and strongest
bones in the body.
o The head of the femur forms a
joint in the hip bones.
o The other end of femur forms
joint with the tibia.
o Patella is a small triangular bone
that protect the knee joints.
o The fibula is smaller than the
tibia.
o Tarsals are formed by seven
bones which form ankle.
o Five bones called metatarsals
form the skeleton of the
metatarsus or foot.
o The number phalanges in the
foot are equal with the phalanges