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Research-Objectives, Philosophy,

Validity and Case study

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The research has the following three objectives:
1. Theoretical objective
2. Factual objective and
3. Application objective.

THEORETICAL OBJECTIVE
Those researches whose objectives are theoretical formulate the new
theories, principles or laws.
Such type of research is explanatory because it explains the
relationships of certain variables.
These researches contribute some basic knowledge to the human
knowledge.
The researches in different disciplines i.e., Physics, Chemistry,
Mathematics etc. have the theoretical objective.

FACTUAL OBJECTIVE
Those researches whose objective is factual find out new facts. This
objective is by nature descriptive.
These researches describe facts or events which happened previously.
Such type of research is done in history.

APPLICATION OBJECTIVE
The research having application objective does not contribute a new
knowledge in the fund of human knowledge but suggests new
applications.
By application we mean improvement and modification in practice.
For example if anyone gives a new application of electricity then such
type of research has application objective

CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH
Generally research has two levels:
1. Basic level and
2. Applied level
1. Basic Level
Trevers has defined basic level as basic research. It is designed to
add an organized body of scientific knowledge and does not necessarily
produce results of immediate practical value.

2. Applied Level
Applied research is undertaken to solve an immediate practical
problem and the goal of adding to scientific knowledge is secondary.
A common mistake is to assume that levels differ according to
complexity and that basic research tends to be complex than applied
research. Some applied research is quite complex and some basic
research is rather simple.

A. On the Basis of Objectives of Research


On the basis of objectives of research they are of two types:
1. Fundamental research and
2. Action research
B. On the Basis of Approach of Research
On the basis of approach of Research they are of two types:
1. Longitudinal research: Historical research, case study, genetic comes under
longitudinal approach of research.
2. Cross sectional research: Experimental research, survey are the examples of
cross sectional research.

C. On the Basis of Precision in Research Findings


On the basis of precision (accuracy) the researches are:
1. Experimental research
2. Non-experimental research.
Experimental research is precise while non-experimental is not.
.D. On the Basis of Nature of Findings
On the basis of findings Researches are of two types:
1. Explanatory research: Such researches explain more concerned
theories, laws and principles.
2. Descriptive research: These are more concerned with facts.

E. According to National Science Foundation


These National Science
classification of research.

Foundation

formulated

three-fold

1. Basic research: Those researches which embrace origin or unique


investigation for the addition to knowledge.
2. Applied research: Which may be characterized as the utilization in
practice.
3. Development research: It is the use of scientific knowledge for the
production of useful materials, devices, systems, methods for processes
excluding design and production engineering.

F. Another Classification
1. Adhoc research: Adhoc research is the class of inquiry used for a
purpose alone and special.
2. Empirical research: Empirical research is that which depends upon
the experience or observation of phenomena and events.
3. Explained research: Explained research is that which is based on a
theory.
4. Boarder line research: Boarder line research is that which involves
those main two branches or are as of science. For example study of
public school finance

PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD
The educational researches are designed to achieve the following four
objectives:
I.

To formulate new theory, principles and laws,

II. To establish new truth or reality,


III. To find out new facts, and
IV. To suggest new applications.
.The philosophical researches are conducted to establish truth or reality.
Education has two respects: theoretical and practical.
.The practical aspect is enriched by scientific researches and conducting
philosophical researches can develop theoretical part of education

MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY
The term philosophy may become more clear if we say what
philosophy is not.
It is not speculation, i.e. unreal or unverifiable. Philosophy is not a
speculative discipline in the sense that it begins with gratuitous
assumptions about man or the universe.
It is not religion, although the philosopher may deeply concern about
the nature of God or the possibility of immortality of man.
It is not a way of life, in the sense in which we sometimes refer to a
persons philosophy of life. It is not the poetic appreciation of a
beautiful sunrise.

NEED OF PHILOSOPHY
The philosopher, Maritain, has described this paradox in his essay, on
the need of philosophy:

Philosophy, taken in itself, is above utility. And for this very reason
philosophy is of the utmost necessity for man. It reminds them of
supreme utility of those things which do not deal with means, but with
ends. For men do not live only by bread, vitamins and technological
discoveries. They live by values and realities which are above time, space
and are worth being known for their own space; they feed on that
invisible food which sustains the life of the spirit, and which makes them
aware, not of such or such means at the service of their life, but of their
very reasons for living and suffering and helping.

THE METHODOLOGY OF
PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH
In the discipline of research methodology, two approaches are followed:
quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative approach is
employed in scientific research or inquiry. The qualitative researches are
also equally important in area of education. It is used in historical and
philosophical researches. This concept can be illustrated with the
following example:

If a researcher asks, How should mathematics be taught? He is posing


a legitimate research problem of empirical in nature. He is asking,
What means are most effective and most efficient for teaching
mathematics? But there is another question he may ask: should
mathematics be taught at all? The first question is an empirical one: it
suggests the observation and measurement of quantitative phenomena.
The second question is, however, qualitative: it considers the value or
the importance of mathematics. It may be answered in many ways, but
whatever answer is given will depend in turn upon more far-reaching
conclusions. If we say, for instance that mathematics contributes to the
good life or the development of the whole person. What is good life;
what is a whole person?

It is true that we do not look to the philosopher to tell us how to teach or


what administrative procedures to use; his conclusions about the
fundamental questions of existence will inevitably shape the course of
our behavior in the classroom and the office. If human freedom is in
reality, a myth we may expect to change our teaching accordingly. If
truth were totally illusive, then we would be foolish indeed to pose as
guardians of the truth.

MAJOR APPROACHES IN
PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCH
There are two major types of studies, which are conducted in the area of
philosophy of education:
1. A system of Thought: First one is concerned with ascribing a system of thought
or certain dominating concepts and master ideas to the nation, people,
community or other group at a given time and demonstrating them as reflected
in their life, achievements practices and literature.
2. A Critical Appraisal of the Thought of Great Personage: Second
approach gives us a critical appraisal of the thought of a great personage or
group of persons and demonstrates it in his or her or either utterance, private or
public life and achievements.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL METHOD


OF RESEARCH

VALIDITY OF RESEARCH
Validity is one of the main concerns with research. "Any research can
be affected by different kinds of factors which, while unnecessary to
the concerns of the research, can invalidate the findings" (Seliger &
Shohamy 1989, 95). Controlling all possible factors that threaten the
research's validity is a primary responsibility of every good researcher.
In general, validity is an indication of how sound your research is.
More specifically, validity applies to both the design and the methods
of your research. Validity in data collection means that your findings
truly represent the phenomenon you are claiming to measure. Valid
claims are solid claims

TYPES OF VALIDITY
Validity is classified as following
1. Internal validity
2. External validity
. INTERNAL VALIDITY is affected by flaws within the study itself such as
not controlling some of the major variables (a design problem), or problems
with the research instrument (a data collection problem).
. "Findings can be said to be internally invalid because they may have been
affected by factors other than those thought to have caused them, or because
the interpretation of the data by the researcher is not clearly supportable"
(Seliger & Shohamy 1989, 95).

FACTORS WHICH AFFECT


INTERNAL VALIDITY
Subject variability
Size of subject population
Time given for the data collection or experimental treatment
History
Wear and tear
Maturation
Instrument/task sensitivity

EXTERNAL VALIDITY is the extent to which you can generalize


your findings to a larger group or other contexts. If your research lacks
external validity, the findings cannot be applied to contexts other than
the one in which you carried out your research. For example, if the
subjects are all males from one ethnic group, your findings might not
apply to females or other ethnic groups. Or, if you conducted your
research in a highly controlled laboratory environment, your findings
may not faithfully represent what might happen in the real world.
"Findings can be said to be externally invalid because [they] cannot be
extended or applied to contexts outside those in which the research
took place" (Seliger & Shohamy 1989, 95).

SEVEN IMPORTANT FACTORS


AFFECT EXTERNAL VALIDITY
Population characteristics (subjects)
Interaction of subject selection and research
Descriptive explicitness of the independent variable
The effect of the research environment
Researcher or experimenter effects
Data collection methodology
The effect of time

CASE STUDY METHOD


Case study is both method and tool for research. Case study leads to
very novel idea and no longer limited to the particular individual. In
case study investigator tries to collect the bits in support of
proposition.
One case study if we take specific than prediction value is less while
if the case is the representative sample then it has high prediction
value.
Case study methodological is not longitudinal study but it depends on
the methods of information about the individual as far as possible.

Here case does not necessarily mean an individual. Case means an unit,
it may be an institution or a nation, or religion or may be an individual
or a concept.
Thus, case study refers to
Close study of an unit,
Deep study,
Cumulative study, and
Clinical study.

DEFINITION OF CASE STUDY


The case study or case history method is not a newer thing, but it is a liner
descendent of very ancient methods of sociological description and
generalization namely, the parable, the allegory, the story and the novel.
Case study is based on intensive study of the comparatively fewer persons,
sometimes confined to a very small number of cases only.
P.V. Young writes :
A fairly exhaustive study of a person or group is called a life of case history.
Thus, the case study is more intensive in nature, the field of study is
comparatively limited but has more of depth in it. And here the unit of study is
also unlimited

P.V. Young again writes:


Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social
unit - be that unit a person, a family, institution, culture group, or even
an entire community.
Some writers have made a distinction between the terms case study,
case work and case method.
As defined above case-study means intensive investigation of the
particular unit represented.
Case work refers especially to the developmental adjustment, remedial
or corrective procedures that appropriately follow diagnosis of the
causes of maladjustment or of favorable development.

OBJECTIVES OF CASE STUDY


The case study has the following four main objectives:
1. Clinical purpose, (dealing with a patient).
2. Diagnostic purpose, (educational situation to provide the remedial
instruction to poor students).
3. Fact-findings about psychological or educational problems.
4. Supplementing other information. It may be a follow up work.

TYPES OF CASE STUDY


Six types of case studies are conducted which are as follows:
1. A group or a community case study,
2. Casual comparative studies,
3. Activity analysis.
4. Content or document analysis,
5. A follow-up study, and
6. Trend studies.

1. Community Studies
The community study is a careful description and analysis of a group of
people living together in a particular geographic location in a
corporative way
2. Casual Comparative Studies
Another type of study seeks to find the answers to the problems through
the analysis of casual relationship.
What factors seem to be associated with certain occurrences, conditions
or types of behavior? By the methodology of descriptive research, the
relative importance of these factors may be investigated.

3. Activity Analysis
The analysis of the activities or processes that an individual is called
upon to perform is important, both in industry and in various types of
social agencies. This process of analysis is appropriate in any field of
work and at all levels of responsibility.
4. Content or Document Analysis
Content analysis, sometimes known as document analysis. deals with
the systematic examination of current records or documents as sources
of data. In documentary analysis, the following may be used as sources
of data: official records and reports, printed forms, text-books, reference
books, letters, autobiographies diaries, Picture, films and cartoons etc.

5. A Follow-up Study
A follow-up study investigates individuals who have left and institution
after having completed programme, a treatment or a course of study, to
know what has been the impact of the institutions and its programme
upon them.
6. Trend Studies
The trend or predictive study is an interesting application of the
descriptive method. In essence, it is based upon a longitudinal
consideration of recorded data, indicating what has been happening in
the past, what does the present situation reveal and on the basis of these
data, what will be likely to happen in the future.

CRITERIA FOR A GOOD CASE STUDY


The essential characteristics of a satisfactory case study include
1. Continuity,
2. Completeness of data,
3. Validity of data,
4. Confidential recording and
5. Scientific synthesis.

THE STEPS OF CASE STUDY


The following are the steps in the case study
Step 1 : Status of the Situation or Unit of Attention.
Step 2 : Collection of Data, Examination and History.
Step 3 : Diagnosis and Identification of Casual Factors.
Step 4 : Adjustment, Treatment and Therapy.
Step 5 : Follow up Programme.

THE STEPS OF CASE STUDY


1. Status of the Situation or Unit of Attention
.The identification of the need-situation, aspect of behavior, or phase of the life
process as tile unit for study. For example, reading disability, habitual truancy,
exceptional talent in music, superior mentality of a breadwinner out of a job
2. Collection of Data
.Collection of data is the second step in the case study but with emphasis on the
research for facts that may serve later as a basis for diagnosis or identification
of the casual factors operating.
(a) Examination and History Outlines
(b) Personal Documents
(c) Life History and (d) Autobiography, Biography and Diaries

3. Diagnosis and Identification of Casual Factors


The structural pattern of diagnosis is the formulation of a theory or
hypothesis of causation. From causation diagnosis looks towards the
possibilities for growth and adjustment of the individual as a personality
and as a social being who shares experiences with others. For example, a
large number of children and youth require special diagnostic study in the
solution of their educational and social problems.
This group includes:
1. The mentally and physically handicapped.
2. Those who are maladjusted socially, morally, or emotionally.
3. Those who perform below their level of learning capacity.
4. Others whose latent talents and special aptitudes became the cause of
inadequate stimulation, are never given expression

4. Adjustment, Treatment and Therapy


Functional Relationship Between Diagnosis And Adjustment: If the time
and effort spent in reaching a diagnosis of casual factors are to be fully
justified, an appropriate adjustment of conditions should be affected.
5. Follow Up Programme
To complete the cycle of case study and case work, it is necessary to
check the validity of the remedial treatment. After medication or surgery
the physician follows the convalescence of the patient to determine
whether recovery takes place. In instances of failure to make reasonable
progress, a new diagnosis and a modified treatment may be required
employed generality in case work.

THE CASE STUDY OF AN INDIVIDUAL


The case study of an individual means a range over the following sources:
1. Family history
2. Cumulative records, personal interview of the individual.
3. Personal habits.
4. Interviewing his associates and friends.
5. Individual school records.
(a) Status in the class. .
(b) Achievements.
(c) Kind of aspiration.
(d) Teachers attitude towards him.

THE CASE STUDY OF AN INDIVIDUAL


6. Individual participation school playground and other places.
7. Individual and emotional adjustments against the class social groups.
8. On this basis the profile of the case is formed. The profile helps the
investigators to diagnose and suggestions for remediation may be
provided.
9. History of the case may be prepared.

LIMITATIONS OF CASE STUDY


A case study generally suffers from the following limitations:
1. It is difficult to study objectively.
2. There is difficulty in formulation of hypotheses.
3. The data of information are not collected in a systematic order.
4. The statistical inferences cannot be drawn.
5. Parents and relatives do not like to mention the weakness of the case or individual.
6. It is more time consuming and costly method.
7. It does not contribute to new knowledge and field studied.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CASE STUDY


AND STATISTICAL METHOD