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Department of Linguistics, University of Mysore, Mysore.

International Conference
on Malayalam and Globalization
25-27th Feb. 2008, Thiruvananthapuram.
1. The history of vocabulary “Culture”
2. Nature and reality of “culture”
3. The categories of definitions of “culture”
4. Language, thought and culture
5. Language, Culture and Society
6. Language learning
7. Culture, learning and communication
8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and
10. Results
English in Globalization
Importance of relationship of language and culture

Culture and language are two unseperatable sides of human

communication system

A language of one society reflects the culture of that society

Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in various ways

Language is human society’s most precious possession not only

because of its communicative values, but also because language is the
vehicle of culture
Culture is the embodiment of all that a society believes produces
Language becomes an integral part of culture
Language and culture go hand in hand interacting with and shaping
together CONTINUE …
The acquisition of one language is done through or with culture
Society and culture are more than background and even more than
Language and society are so inter-linked and so much apart each
other that are cannot be thought of except in relation to the other
Language for the individual is his tool for interaction with community
as well as the community’s tool for interaction with the individual
Language acquiring is just one aspect of acculturation
The two languages are not translation of each others
Globalization in a literal sense is international integration
Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of
the world are unified into single society
The effects of globalization which work to linguistic homogenization
and cultural homogenization is done through modernization,
translation, standardization and the others.
1. The history of word “Culture”
Origin of concept “culture”

It is derived form the classical or may be pre-classical Latin


In 1750, it was used to describe the human society for the

first time in Germany language

In 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific definition

In 1926, ”Culture” was added to Webster dictionary (for the

same meaning)
2. Nature and reality of “culture”
It refers to some “property” of community
culture is something that everybody has
Material culture and Non-material culture
Culture is knowledge includes “know-how “and “how-that”
(1957, Goodenough)
Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural knowledge , Non-
shared non-cultural knowledge in one society
is general; however, it is particular.
is dynamic, however, it is static.
is accepted through force, however, it is free will
Problems of the study of culture
3.The categories of definitions of “culture”
The Descriptive type- The factorial elements of culture -Tylor 1871

The Traditional type- The social heritage or tradition -Sapir 1921

The Normative type-

The rule or way -Young 1934
The values and ideas -Sorokin 1947
The Psychological type -
Culture as adjustment -Small 1905
The learning -Opler 1947
The habits -Murdock 1941
The structural type- The model, pattern or organization of culture
-Willey 1926
The Genetical type-
Culture is as a production - Falsom 1928

The ideas in culture - Ward 1903

The symbols of culture - Whyite 1943

4.Language, though and culture
In language acquisition, cognitive development and linguistic
development, go hand in hand, each interacting with and shaping the
Verbal labels can shape the way we store events for later recall
culture as “socially acquired knowledge”
culture is one part of memory
Culture is really an integral part of the interaction between language
and thought
Meanings for every thing, are in the human
5. Language, Culture and Society
The facility of communication and interaction for social
living, is as a result of social being and living in societies as
characteristic of the human
Language does not develop in a vacuum
Language records the cultural history of a community
A language is part of the culture of a people and the chief
means by which the members of a society communicate
Language is component of culture and central network
through which the other components are expressed
Differences in cultural meanings across language are a
problem in learning a new language
Contacting with people of another society, identifies some
characteristics of the behavior ,that show they are as
member of a different society
6. Language learning and teaching
Learning is as “acquiring or getting of knowledge of a
subject or skill by study, experience, or instruction”

The concept of learning, as it is understood today, has been

generally influenced by the psychological study of the
learning process

Teaching is as" showing or helping someone to learn how to

do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of
something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or

Your understanding of how the learner learns, will

determine the philosophy of education
7. Culture, learning and communication
To understand some materials and subject in one language, we
should understand the meanings of the culture expressed by the
words of the language

There can be no real learning of a language, without

understanding something of the patterns and values of the
culture of which it is a part

To become truly educated in language, it is necessary to absorb

the full cultural meaning of the target language

Breaking free of the elements meaning units of the learner’s

native language, let him to achieve right communication
through a second language

If we suppose that:
*M = “Meaning which exists in the mind of
sender of message during the specific
communication, as it is called Communication

*M′ = “Meaning which consist in the mind

of receiver of message during the specific
communication, as it is called Communication

**Among the two individuals communication,

one of the below states, will occur:
State one M'/M=1, Two individuals communicate each
others completely.

State two M'/M=0, Two individuals do not communicate each

each others.

State three M'/M <1, Two individuals communicative each

others, but not completely.

State four M'/M >1, Two results will occur:

A-Complete communication B - Self communication

8. The analysis of the social content of
language teaching and learning
The social content of language learning can be regarded as a set of
factors that is likely to exercise a powerful influence on language

Socio-cultural factors that bear upon motivation

Sociolinguistic and socio cultural factors in learning environment

Importance to the influence of interethnic relations upon ethno-

linguistic attitudes and on language learning

the social opportunities for contact with the second language

Educational frame work in which the teaching normally occurs

Globalization (generally written with a Z) has been defined by
Giddens as “the intensification of worldwide social relations
which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings
are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”
(Giddens, 1990)

Globalization in a literal sense is international integration

Globalization can be described as a process by which the people

of the world are unified into single society

Scholars from various disciplines such as sociology, political,

science and geography have perceived globalization differently
and tried to define it from various angles CONTINUE…
Commodity of chains whereby production is coordinated on
a global scale

Diffusion of practice, values and technology that have an

influence on people’s life world wide

Increasing technological scale and information flow

Increasing broader flow of goods, services, money,

information and culture

we can find some of common concepts like mutual

interdependence, exchange, and sharing the community
around the world in all aspects such as social, economic,
cultural and even linguistic aspects CONTINUE…
Although there seems to be a consensus that we are living in
increasingly globalized world, there is by no means agreement about
related issues Compression of space and time, shrinking of world

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several

different ways such as:

1.Industrial, 2) Financial, 3) Economic, 4) Political, 5) Informational,

6) Cultural, 7) Social and 8) Ecological

In cultural aspects, there are many international exchanges such as:

1. Spreading of multiculturalism, 2) International travel and tourism,
3) Immigration, 4) formation or development of a set of universal
values, 5) Development of a global telecommunications
infrastructure, 6) Internet, Communication satellites and the other
related tools, 7) Increase in the number of standards applied globally
Globalization is the emergence that is common cross-
culturally and across national boundaries

The global communication leads to some extent functional

homogenization of culture and language

Homogenization of culture and homogenization of

language, are particularly relevant for translating
globalization as a reality

The active responses of sub-national languages and cultures

to the global force are also very important for their own
survival and progress
Language and culture go hand in hand, each interacting with
and shaping together
Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in
various ways
Language is an integral part of culture and the vehicle of
Effects on every one of them, leads to affect the other as it can
to be called directly or indirectly

Globalization, through linguistic homogenization and cultural

homogenization, affects on language and culture as
modernization, translation, standardization and the others
Globalization’s effects can be positive and negative effects
The homogenization of culture due to globalization process
results in the marginalization of indigenous cultures
However, globalization through cultural homogenization,
can be helpful in the progress and development of the
cultures; if ….
The members of one culture community should try to
maintain their positive aspects of culture and replace
negative aspects of their culture through positive aspects of
The members of one culture community should aware
about outcomes of globalization
At the language level , globalization leads to growth of
many countries

The technological and advanced communicational facilities

make the world to shrink and pave way for homogenization

many who believe their mother tongue does not have

universal role , they waste their time to use their mother
tongue or teach it to their children

many others who believe such language (English) is as a

language that can make the world as a peaceful unit world
through understanding same language
Some ideas as result of globalization and English or any
language with such effect can be dangerous for national,
local languages, specially endangered language which are
understood to be moribund languages

The industrialists, traders and their marketing techniques

play a major role in shaping the languages

It should be mentioned that, in fact the control over the

language is not in the hands of scholar or academic
institutions. It is shaped by the traders and marketing
English in Globalization
English is as a language of communication and official
language in many countries
English is not own language of particular community or
Since 1945 (after second world war), English became a
lingua France
More than 2/3 of scientists in the world, write their books
and articles in English
3/4 of letters in the world are written in English
90 percent of all communications in Internet as international
network, is in English
The education English programs of English radios are used by
more than 150 millions in the world
More than 500 millions of children in elementary schools and
more than 800 hundreds in secondary and high school (without
china) are familiar with English as a second or foreign
However, there are some governments’ policies against
English in countries such as France, German, Spain
There are three circles regarding to English first circle, such as
U.S and England, the second circle such as India, which
English has much dominance and it is applied as a second
language and the third circle ,such as china and Russia which
English has special importance as a international language and
for such countries is as first foreign language
In 1994 , 1/3 of the press in the world, are printed in countries
which English has special importance

In 1995, 110 from 160 of linguistics journals(70 percent) were

printed in English

In 1995, there were 5000 radio station that 45 percent of them

were in countries that English has special role

It is estimated that English film serials in U.S. and England are

watched in more than 120 countries

In 1996, 80 percent of produced films were in English

85 percent of incomes of world’s cinemas are for English
production of Hollywood
In countries such as German and France, although, there
are governments’ policies against English, but only, 25
percent of their cinemas incomes are for non-English
In 1990, 549 from 557 of famous music groups act in
1156 from 1219 of famous singers, sing in English
In 1998, U.S. had the first percentage of income of tourism
(50 milliards dollars )
Around 80 percent of register of information in Internet, is
in English .The users of Internet in 1990 had been one
million and in 1993,Tthey became 20 millions and 40
millions in 1995. It is estimated that in 2020, Such numbers
will be one milliard
I Acknowledge that I
did main from work
of the present work
based on the work of
Hossein Yaghobi.
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