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Anukaran Khanna

Importance of Control System
Basic Definitions
Classification of Control System
Open Loop Control System
Closed Loop Control System

Importance of Control system

Control system plays a vital role in our day to day life. The notion of automatic control system is basic and
well mixed in every facet of life.

There is series of unending implementations of control systems, from a simple bread toaster to complex
power plant, and also in the working of satellites, guided missiles, etc.

This presentation introduces the basic control systems.

Basic Definitions

System: An arrangement or combination of different physical

components that are connected or related together to form an entire unit
to achieve a certain objective is called a system. A kite is an example of
a physical system, a classroom is also an example of physical system.

Control: The meaning of control is to regulate, direct or command a

system so that desired objective is obtained.

Plant: It is defined as the portion of a system which is to be controlled

or regulated. It is also called a process.

Controller: It is the element of the system itself, or may be external to

the system. It controls the plant or the process.

Basic Definitions

Input: The applied signal or excitation signal that is applied to a control

system to get a specified output is called input.

Output: The actual response that is obtained from a control system due to
the application of the input is termed as output.

Disturbances: The signal that has some adverse effect on the value of
the output of a system is called disturbance. If it is produced within the
system, it is termed as an internal disturbance; otherwise it is known as
an external disturbance.

Control System: It is an amalgamation of different physical elements

linked in such a manner so as to regulate, direct or command itself to
obtain a certain objective.

Basic Definitions

A Control System must have (1) Input (2) output (3) ways to
achieve input and output objectives and (4) control action.

Classification of Control Systems

Natural control System: The system inside a human being or a

biological system are known as natural control system.

Man Made Control System: The various control systems that are
designed and developed by man are known as man made control
system. An automobile system is an example of man made control

Combinational Control System: The combination of a natural and

man made control system is an example of combinational control
system. Driving car is an example of a combinational control system.

Classification of Control Systems

Time Varying and Time Invariant Control System: If the parameters of control
system vary with time, the control system is termed as time varying control system.
A space vehicle leaving earth is an example of time varying system.
If the parameters of control system do not vary with time, the
control system is termed as time invariant control system. The
elements of an electrical network such as resistance, inductance and
capacitance are an example of time invariant system.

Deterministic and Stochastic Control System: If the response to input, and to

external disturbances, of a control system is predictable and repetitive, the control
system is known as deterministic system. Any control system is called stochastic if
such a response is unpredictable.

Classification of Control Systems

Linear and Non linear Systems: A control system is known as
linear if it satisfies the additive property as well as the homogeneous
(a) Additive Property: If x and y belong to the domain of the function f,
we can write
f (x+y) = f(x) + f(y)
(b) Homogeneous property: For any x belonging to the domain of
the function f and for any scalar
constant , we can write
f(x) = f(x)

The principle of superposition is a combination of the above two

properties. If a function satisfies the above two properties it is said to
be linear. All physical system are non linear in nature.

Classification of Control Systems

Single Input Single Output and Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems: If a control
system has one input and one output it is termed as Single Input Single Output (SISO)
system. If a control system has multiple input and multiple output, it is known as Multiple
Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system.

Lumped and Distributed Parameter Control Systems: If a control system can be

represented by ordinary differential equations such system are called lumped parameter
control system. Electrical network parameter such as resistance, inductance, etc. are lumped
parameter system.
If a control system can be represented by partial differential
equations such system are called distributed parameter control
system. In transmission line its parameter such as resistance and
inductance is totally distributed along therefore are called distributed
parameter system.

Open Loop Control Systems

A system in which control action does not depend on output is known as open
loop system.

Examples of open loop systems are automatic washing machines, bread toaster,
electric hand drier, automatic milk server, traffic signal etc.

Open Loop Control Systems

A) These system are simple in construction and design.
B) These system are economical.
C) They are usually stable
D) Maintenance is easy

A) They are less accurate
B) If external disturbances are
significantly from the desired value.




Closed Loop Control Systems

If controlling action of a system are somehow dependent on output or changes in

output, system is called closed loop system.

r(t) is the reference input, e(t) is the error signal, u(t) is the actuating signal, and
c(t) is the controlled output.

Closed Loop Control Systems

For a positive feedback signal, we can write

e(t) = r(t) + b(t)

For a negative feedback signal, we can write

e(t) = r(t) - b(t)

This error e(t) is applied to the controller. The controller gives the activating signal
u(t) for the process. The controlled output will be driven by the action of the
controller in such a manner that e(t) will be reduced to zero. Practical examples
of closed loop systems are automatic electric iron.

Closed Loop Control Systems

A) They are more accurate
B) The effect of external disturbance signal can be made
C) Speed of response can be greatly increased
D) The variations in parameter of system do not affect the output of the

A) They are more complex and expensive
B) The system are prone to instability
C) Cost of maintenance is high.