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# ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Dynamics
CFD Introduction

CFD 1

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting

fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related
phenomena by solving the mathematical equations which govern these
processes using a numerical process (that is, on a computer).
The result of CFD analyses is relevant engineering data used in:

## conceptual studies of new designs

detailed product development
troubleshooting
redesign

CFD 2

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

Applications

## flow and heat transfer in industrial processes (boilers, heat exchangers,

combustion equipment, pumps, blowers, piping, etc.)
aerodynamics of ground vehicles, aircraft, missiles
film coating, thermoforming in material processing applications
flow and heat transfer in propulsion and power generation systems
ventilation, heating, and cooling flows in buildings
chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for integrated circuit manufacturing
heat transfer for electronics packaging applications
and many, many more...

CFD 3

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Analysis begins with a mathematical model

of a physical problem.

Bottle

## Conservation of matter, momentum, and

energy must be satisfied throughout the
region of interest.
Fluid properties are modeled empirically.

Filling
Nozzle

## Simplifying assumptions are made in order

to make the problem tractable (e.g., steadystate, incompressible, inviscid, twodimensional).
Provide appropriate initial and/or boundary
conditions for the problem.
Domain for bottle filling
problem.

CFD 4

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## CFD applies numerical methods (called

discretization) to develop approximations of the
governing equations of fluid mechanics and the fluid
region to be studied.

## The set of approximating equations are solved

numerically (on a computer) for the flow field
variables at each node or cell.

## Governing differential equations algebraic

The collection of cells is called the grid or mesh.

## System of equations are solved simultaneously to

provide solution.

## The solution is post-processed to extract quantities of

interest (e.g. lift, drag, heat transfer, separation
points, pressure loss, etc.).

CFD 5

problem.
Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

Goal

## compute average pressure drop, heat

transfer per tube row

Assumptions

## flow is two-dimensional, laminar,

incompressible
flow approaching tube bank is steady
with a known velocity
body forces due to gravity are negligible
flow is translationally periodic (i.e.
geometry repeats itself)

CFD 6

## Physical System can be modeled

with repeating geometry.

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

## How Does a CFD Code Work?

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

CFD codes are structured around the numerical algorithms that can tackle
fluid flow problems

## Three main elements:

1.
2.
3.

Pre Processor
Solver
Post Processor

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Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

1) Pre-Processor
Consists of the input of
a flow problem to CFD
User Activities:

## define geometry & generate grid (50%

time)
selection of phenomena to be modeled
definition of fluid properties
specification of boundary and initial
conditions

CFD 8

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

2) Solver
Three primary numerical solution techniques

## Approximates the unknown variables by simple functions

Discretization by substitution of the approximations into the
governing flow equations and subsequent mathematical
manipulations
Solution of the algebraic equations

CFD 9

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Finite difference methods describe the unknowns of the flow

problems by means of point samples at the node points of a grid
co-ordinate lines
Truncated Taylor series expan-sions are used to
generate finite difference approximations of the
derivatives of in terms of point samples of at
each grid point and its immediate neighbors

CFD 10

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

3) Post Processor

## Domain geometry and grid display

Vector Plots
Contour Plots
Particle Tracking

CFD 11

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Results of CFD are at best as good as the physics embedded in it as at worst as

good a its operator
THESE PROBLEMS ARE COMPLEX
Prior to running a simulation there is a stage of identification and formulation
of the flow problem in terms of the physical and chemical phenomena that
need to be considered.
A successful simulation has

converged solution
grid independence

CFD 12

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

Low Cost

Speed

Using physical experiments and tests to get essential engineering data for
design can be expensive.
Computational simulations are relatively inexpensive, and costs are likely to
decrease as computers become more powerful.
CFD simulations can be executed in a short period of time.
Quick turnaround means engineering data can be introduced early in the
design process

## Ability to Simulate Real Conditions

Many flow and heat transfer processes can not be (easily) tested - e.g.
hypersonic flow at Mach 20
CFD provides the ability to theoretically simulate any physical condition

CFD 13

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Ability to Simulate Ideal Conditions

CFD allows great control over the physical process, and provides the ability to
isolate specific phenomena for study.
Example: a heat transfer process can be idealized with adiabatic, constant heat
flux, or constant temperature boundaries.

Comprehensive Information

## Experiments only permit data to be

extracted at a limited number of
locations in the system (e.g. pressure
and temperature probes, heat flux
gauges, LDV, etc.)
CFD allows the analyst to examine a
large number of locations in the region
of interest, and yields a
comprehensive set of flow parameters
for examination.
Courtesy: Fluent, Inc.

CFD 14

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

Limitations of CFD

Physical Models

CFD solutions rely upon physical models of real world processes (e.g.
turbulence, compressibility, chemistry, multiphase flow, etc.).
The solutions that are obtained through CFD can only be as accurate as
the physical models on which they are based.

Numerical Errors

## Solving equations on a computer invariably introduces numerical errors

Round-off error - errors due to finite word size available on the computer
Truncation error - error due to approximations in the numerical models

Round-off errors will always exist (though they should be small in most
cases)

CFD 15

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

## Limitations of CFD (2)

Boundary Conditions

## As with physical models, the accuracy of the CFD solution is only as

good as the initial/boundary conditions provided to the numerical model.
Example: Flow in a duct with sudden expansion

## If flow is supplied to domain by a pipe, you should use a fully-developed

profile for velocity rather than assume uniform conditions.
Computational
Domain

Computational
Domain

## Fully Developed Inlet

Profile

Uniform Inlet
Profile

poor
Courtesy: Fluent, Inc

better

CFD 16

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16

ME 5337/7337
Notes-2005-002

Summary

## Computational Fluid Dynamics is a powerful way of modeling fluid

flow, heat transfer, and related processes for a wide range of important
scientific and engineering problems.
The cost of doing CFD has decreased dramatically in recent years, and
will continue to do so as computers become more and more powerful.

CFD 17

Ram Ramanan
05/27/16