Introduction

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Introduction

© All Rights Reserved

- Fact Sheet
- Fluid Dynamics Lectures
- Ercoftac Bulletin 78
- CFD Background
- Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due to Discretization in CFD Applications
- Multiphysics-CFD
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- Comparision Between Models Multiphase-flow
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Notes-2005-002

Dynamics

CFD Introduction

CFD 1

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related

phenomena by solving the mathematical equations which govern these

processes using a numerical process (that is, on a computer).

The result of CFD analyses is relevant engineering data used in:

detailed product development

troubleshooting

redesign

CFD 2

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Applications

combustion equipment, pumps, blowers, piping, etc.)

aerodynamics of ground vehicles, aircraft, missiles

film coating, thermoforming in material processing applications

flow and heat transfer in propulsion and power generation systems

ventilation, heating, and cooling flows in buildings

chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for integrated circuit manufacturing

heat transfer for electronics packaging applications

and many, many more...

CFD 3

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

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Notes-2005-002

of a physical problem.

Bottle

energy must be satisfied throughout the

region of interest.

Fluid properties are modeled empirically.

Filling

Nozzle

to make the problem tractable (e.g., steadystate, incompressible, inviscid, twodimensional).

Provide appropriate initial and/or boundary

conditions for the problem.

Domain for bottle filling

problem.

CFD 4

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

discretization) to develop approximations of the

governing equations of fluid mechanics and the fluid

region to be studied.

numerically (on a computer) for the flow field

variables at each node or cell.

The collection of cells is called the grid or mesh.

provide solution.

interest (e.g. lift, drag, heat transfer, separation

points, pressure loss, etc.).

CFD 5

problem.

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Goal

transfer per tube row

Assumptions

incompressible

flow approaching tube bank is steady

with a known velocity

body forces due to gravity are negligible

flow is translationally periodic (i.e.

geometry repeats itself)

CFD 6

with repeating geometry.

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

CFD codes are structured around the numerical algorithms that can tackle

fluid flow problems

1.

2.

3.

Pre Processor

Solver

Post Processor

CFD 7

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

1) Pre-Processor

Consists of the input of

a flow problem to CFD

User Activities:

time)

selection of phenomena to be modeled

definition of fluid properties

specification of boundary and initial

conditions

CFD 8

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

2) Solver

Three primary numerical solution techniques

Discretization by substitution of the approximations into the

governing flow equations and subsequent mathematical

manipulations

Solution of the algebraic equations

CFD 9

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

problems by means of point samples at the node points of a grid

co-ordinate lines

Truncated Taylor series expan-sions are used to

generate finite difference approximations of the

derivatives of in terms of point samples of at

each grid point and its immediate neighbors

CFD 10

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05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

3) Post Processor

Vector Plots

Contour Plots

Particle Tracking

CFD 11

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

good a its operator

THESE PROBLEMS ARE COMPLEX

Prior to running a simulation there is a stage of identification and formulation

of the flow problem in terms of the physical and chemical phenomena that

need to be considered.

A successful simulation has

converged solution

grid independence

CFD 12

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Advantages of CFD

Low Cost

Speed

Using physical experiments and tests to get essential engineering data for

design can be expensive.

Computational simulations are relatively inexpensive, and costs are likely to

decrease as computers become more powerful.

CFD simulations can be executed in a short period of time.

Quick turnaround means engineering data can be introduced early in the

design process

Many flow and heat transfer processes can not be (easily) tested - e.g.

hypersonic flow at Mach 20

CFD provides the ability to theoretically simulate any physical condition

CFD 13

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

CFD allows great control over the physical process, and provides the ability to

isolate specific phenomena for study.

Example: a heat transfer process can be idealized with adiabatic, constant heat

flux, or constant temperature boundaries.

Comprehensive Information

extracted at a limited number of

locations in the system (e.g. pressure

and temperature probes, heat flux

gauges, LDV, etc.)

CFD allows the analyst to examine a

large number of locations in the region

of interest, and yields a

comprehensive set of flow parameters

for examination.

Courtesy: Fluent, Inc.

CFD 14

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Limitations of CFD

Physical Models

CFD solutions rely upon physical models of real world processes (e.g.

turbulence, compressibility, chemistry, multiphase flow, etc.).

The solutions that are obtained through CFD can only be as accurate as

the physical models on which they are based.

Numerical Errors

Round-off error - errors due to finite word size available on the computer

Truncation error - error due to approximations in the numerical models

Round-off errors will always exist (though they should be small in most

cases)

CFD 15

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Boundary Conditions

good as the initial/boundary conditions provided to the numerical model.

Example: Flow in a duct with sudden expansion

profile for velocity rather than assume uniform conditions.

Computational

Domain

Computational

Domain

Profile

Uniform Inlet

Profile

poor

Courtesy: Fluent, Inc

better

CFD 16

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

ME 5337/7337

Notes-2005-002

Summary

flow, heat transfer, and related processes for a wide range of important

scientific and engineering problems.

The cost of doing CFD has decreased dramatically in recent years, and

will continue to do so as computers become more and more powerful.

CFD 17

Ram Ramanan

05/27/16

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