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the preceding terms. Such lists are called

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS (or) AP.

So, An Arithmetic Progression is a list of numbers

in which each term is obtained by adding a fixed

number preceding term except the first term.

This fixed number is called the common

difference of the AP.

Remember that it can be positive(+), negative(-)

or zero(0)

Progression by (a1)second term by (a2 ), nth

term by (ax ) and the common difference by d .

The general form of an Arithmetic Progression

is : a , a +d , a + 2d , a + 3d , a +

(n-1)d

Now, let us consider the situation again in

which Mohit applied for a job and been

selected.

He has been offered a starting monthly salary

of Rs8000, with an annual increment of Rs500.

what would be his salary for the fifth year?

with first term a and common difference d is

given by an=a+(n-1) d.

n is also called the general term of the AP. If there

are m terms in the Arithmetic Progression , then

am represents the last term which is sometimes

also denoted by l.

The sum of the first n terms of an Arithmetic

Progression is given by s=n/2[2a+(n-1) d]. We

can also write it as s=n/2[a +a+(n-1) d].

and common difference d .

The first term = a1 =a +0 d = a + (1-1)d

The second term = a2 = a + d = a + (2-1)d

The third term = a3 = a + 2d = a + (3-1)d

The fourth term = a4 =a + 3d = a + (4-1)d

The nth term = an = a + (n-1)d

2, 6, 10, 14

(i) Here , first term a = 2, find differences in

the next terms a2-a1 = 6 2 = 4

a3-a2 = 10 6 = 4

a4-a3 = 14 10 = 4

Since the differences are common. Hence

the given terms are in A.P.

Problems

Now lets try a simple problem: Problem :Find

10th term of A.P. 12, 18, 24, 30

Find the sum of 30 terms of given A.P. 12 + 20 +

28 + 36

A ladder has rungs 25 cm apart. The rungs decrease

uniformly in length from 45 cm at the bottom to 25

cm at the top .If the top and the bottom rungs are

two and a half meter apart, what is the length of the

wood required for the rungs?

Solutions

Given A.P. is 12, 18, 24, 30.. First term is a = 12

Common difference is d = 18- 12 = 6 nth term is an

= a + (n-1)d

Put n = 10, a10 = 12 + (10-1)6 = 12 + 9 x 6 = 12

+ 54 a10 = 66

Problem 2 Solution : Given A.P. is 12 , 20, 28 ,

36 Its first term is a = 12 Common difference is d =

20 12 = 8

The sum to n terms of an arithmetic progression Sn

= n [ 2a + (n - 1)d ] = x 30 [ 2x 12 + (30-1)x

8] = 15 [ 24 + 29 x8] = 15[24 + 232] = 15 x 246 =

3690

Solution

Problem -3

Let the first term, a = 0 and d= common difference

=25 cm=0.25m. When the rungs are measured

from top to bottom , then the 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75,

1.0. 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 meters.

The number of rungs is eleven. Rung length

decreases from 45 at the bottom to 25 at the top,

so rung lengths are: 45, 43, 41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 31,

29, 27 and 25 cm.

If the top and the bottom rungs are two and a half

meter apart, then The length of the wood required

for the rungs= 11 x 35 = 385 cm.

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