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In all the lists above, we see that the successive

terms are obtained by adding a fixed number to


the preceding terms. Such lists are called
ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS (or) AP.
So, An Arithmetic Progression is a list of numbers
in which each term is obtained by adding a fixed
number preceding term except the first term.
This fixed number is called the common
difference of the AP.
Remember that it can be positive(+), negative(-)
or zero(0)

Let us denote the first term of an Arithmetic


Progression by (a1)second term by (a2 ), nth
term by (ax ) and the common difference by d .
The general form of an Arithmetic Progression
is : a , a +d , a + 2d , a + 3d , a +
(n-1)d
Now, let us consider the situation again in
which Mohit applied for a job and been
selected.
He has been offered a starting monthly salary
of Rs8000, with an annual increment of Rs500.
what would be his salary for the fifth year?

The nth term an of the Arithmetic Progression


with first term a and common difference d is
given by an=a+(n-1) d.
n is also called the general term of the AP. If there
are m terms in the Arithmetic Progression , then
am represents the last term which is sometimes
also denoted by l.
The sum of the first n terms of an Arithmetic
Progression is given by s=n/2[2a+(n-1) d]. We
can also write it as s=n/2[a +a+(n-1) d].

Let us consider an A.P. with first term a


and common difference d .
The first term = a1 =a +0 d = a + (1-1)d
The second term = a2 = a + d = a + (2-1)d
The third term = a3 = a + 2d = a + (3-1)d
The fourth term = a4 =a + 3d = a + (4-1)d
The nth term = an = a + (n-1)d

check whether the term is in AP


2, 6, 10, 14
(i) Here , first term a = 2, find differences in
the next terms a2-a1 = 6 2 = 4
a3-a2 = 10 6 = 4
a4-a3 = 14 10 = 4
Since the differences are common. Hence
the given terms are in A.P.

Problems
Now lets try a simple problem: Problem :Find
10th term of A.P. 12, 18, 24, 30
Find the sum of 30 terms of given A.P. 12 + 20 +
28 + 36
A ladder has rungs 25 cm apart. The rungs decrease
uniformly in length from 45 cm at the bottom to 25
cm at the top .If the top and the bottom rungs are
two and a half meter apart, what is the length of the
wood required for the rungs?

Solutions
Given A.P. is 12, 18, 24, 30.. First term is a = 12
Common difference is d = 18- 12 = 6 nth term is an
= a + (n-1)d
Put n = 10, a10 = 12 + (10-1)6 = 12 + 9 x 6 = 12
+ 54 a10 = 66
Problem 2 Solution : Given A.P. is 12 , 20, 28 ,
36 Its first term is a = 12 Common difference is d =
20 12 = 8
The sum to n terms of an arithmetic progression Sn
= n [ 2a + (n - 1)d ] = x 30 [ 2x 12 + (30-1)x
8] = 15 [ 24 + 29 x8] = 15[24 + 232] = 15 x 246 =
3690

Solution

Problem -3
Let the first term, a = 0 and d= common difference
=25 cm=0.25m. When the rungs are measured
from top to bottom , then the 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75,
1.0. 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 meters.
The number of rungs is eleven. Rung length
decreases from 45 at the bottom to 25 at the top,
so rung lengths are: 45, 43, 41, 39, 37, 35, 33, 31,
29, 27 and 25 cm.
If the top and the bottom rungs are two and a half
meter apart, then The length of the wood required
for the rungs= 11 x 35 = 385 cm.