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Advanced Topic in

Chemistry:
Microbiology
Ms. Ma. Hermielyn
B. Cardenas
Discussant

What is Microbiology?
Biology is the study of living
organisms
Micro anything small that
must be viewed with a
microscope

What is Microbiology?
It is the study of very
small living living
organisms, called
microorganisms or
microbes.

Why Study Microbiology?


We have microorganisms
living in and on our body
- Indigenous microflora are
all microbes that resides on
our body and are beneficial
to us.

Why Study Microbiology?


Some microorganism can
cause diseases
- Opportunistic pathogens
are microbes that has
potential to cause infections

Why Study Microbiology?


Microorganisms are essential
for life on this planet
- Generation of oxygen
- Converts nitrogen into its usable
form
- Decomposition of organic matter

Why Study Microbiology?


Microorganisms are essential
in food industry
- Biotechnology uses
microorganisms to generate
various food and beverages

Why Study Microbiology?

Microorganisms are
essential in medical field
- Some bacteria and fungi
are used to produce
antibiotics

Microorganisms are
ubiquitous.
They are virtually
everywhere.

Careers in Microbiology
Bacteriology study of bacteria
Phycology or algology study
of algae
Protozoology study of
protozoa
Mycology study of fungi
Virology study of virus

History of Microbiology
Varo & Columella [1st
century BC]:
Diseases caused by
invisible organisms
(Animalia minuta)

History of Microbiology
Girolamo Fracastorius of
Verona [1546]:
Living germs (contagium
vivum) cause infectious
diseases
Kircher [1659]: reported

Anton van Leeuwenhoek


Father of Microbiology
He created the first single-lens
microscopes
He observed tiny living
creatures, known as
animalcules.
Described different
morphological forms of
bacteria
1st to record observations of
muscle fibers, bacteria,
spermatozoa and blood flow in
capillaries (small blood
vessels).

He created the first


single-lens microscopes

Robert Hooke

Developed
Compound
microscope
1st to coin the
term Cell

Germ Theory of Disease


Thegerm theory of
diseasestates that
somediseasesare caused
bymicroorganisms. These
small organisms, too small to
see without magnification,
invade humans, animals, and
other living hosts. Their

Germ Theory of Disease

"Germ" may refer


to not just
abacteria, but also
aprotozoa,fungi,vi
rus,and algae.

Germ Theory of Disease


Microorganisms that cause
disease are
calledPATHOGENS.
The diseases they cause
are calledINFECTIOUS
DISEASES.

Germ Theory of Disease


The germ theory was
proposed byGirolamo
Fracastorius in 1546, but
scientific evidence in supp
ort of this accumulated
slowly andGalen'smiasma
theoryremained dominant

Germ Theory of Disease


A transitional period began in
the late 1850s as the work
ofLouis PasteurandRobert
Kochprovided convincing
evidence. Eventually, a
"golden era"
ofbacteriologyensued, in
which the theory quickly led

Louis Pasteur

Father of Modern
Microbiology
Established that
Fermentation caused
by microbial agents
was caused by
microbes

Demonstrated
anaerobic fermentation

Louis Pasteur
Developed
pasteurization to
prevent spoilage of
wine by bacteria
Proved that microbes
arise only from their
like
Contributed to the
Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch
Further developed
the Germ Theory of
Disease
Invented a flat glass
dish, known today as
petri dish
Invented the Kochs
Postulate together
with his colleagues

Kochs Postulate
Used to identify a pathogen responsible for a certain
disease

1. The organism must be regularly associated


with the disease and its characteristic lesions.
2. The organism must be isolated from the
diseased host and grown in culture.
3. The disease must be reproduced when a pure
culture of the organism is introduced into a
healthy, susceptible host.
4. The same organism must be reisolated from
the experimentally infected host.

Diversity of
Microorganisms

Bacteria

Bacteria Size: 0.2-1.5 by 3-5 m


Important
Prokaryotic
Unicellular
Simple Internal structure
Grow on artificial laboratory
media

Bacteria

Important Practical
significance:
Some cause diseases
Some perform role in natural
cycling of elements and
increase soil fertility
Manufacture of valuable
compounds in Industry

Bacteria
Basic shapes
1. Round cocci
2. Rod-shaped bacilli
3. Comma vibrio
4. Spiral spirilla
5. Corkscrew spirochete

Bacteria
Arrangements
1. Pairs diplo
2. Chains strepto
3. Clusters staphylo
4. Packets of four tetrads
5. Packets of eight octads

Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria

Phenotypic Categories
1. Gram-negative
- Escherichia coli
2. Gram-positive
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
3. Gram-variable
- Mycobacterium tuberculae

Virus

Viruses Size: 0.015-0.2 m


Important Characteristics:
posses either DNA or RNA
Unable to replicate on their own
They do not divide by binary fission,
meiosis, or mitosis
Lack gene or enzyme for energy
production
Depend on the ribosomes, enzymes and
metabolites of the host cell

Virus
Practical significance:
Cause diseases in
humans, animals, and
plants
Also infect
microorganisms
-bacteriophage

Virus
Virion a complete
virus particle
Capsid a protein
coat that surrounds
its genome
Capsomere small
protein units that
comprises the
capsid

Algae

Algae Size: 1.0 m to several cm


Important Characteristics:
Eukaryotic
Unicellular or Multicellular
Photosynthetic
Most occur in aquatic
environments
Reproduction: asexual or Sexual

Algae
Practical significance:
Production of food in
aquatic environments
Source of food and in
Pharmaceuticals
Some produce toxic
substances

Algae

pellicle a
thickened cell
membrane
Stigma or eyespot
a light-sensing
organelle
Flagella used for
motility

Fungi (Yeast)

Fungi (Yeasts) Size: 5.0-10.0 m


Important Characteristics:
Eukaryotic
Unicellular
Grow on artificial laboratory
media
Reproduction asexual (cell
division/ budding) or sexual

Fungi (Yeast)
Practical significance:
Some cause diseases
Some are used as food
supplements
Manufacture of alcoholic
beverages

Fungi (Mold)

Fungi (Molds) Size: 2.0-10.0 m by


several mm

Important Characteristics:
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Many distinctive structural features
Cultivated on artificial laboratory
media
Reproduction asexual or sexual

Fungi (Mold)
Practical significance:
Decomposition of many
materials
Industrial production of
many chemicals like
antibiotics
Can cause diseases

Fungi

garbage disposers
of nature
vulture of the
microbial world
Sometimes referred to
as plants
chitin
polysaccharide found
on its
cell wall

Protozoa

Protozoa Size: 2.0-200 m


Important Characteristics:
Eukaryotic
Unicellular
Some cultivated on laboratory
media while some are
intracellular parasites
Reproduction asexual or sexual

Protozoa
Practical significance:
Some cause diseases
Food for aquatic animals

Protozoa

Contracting vacuole used to


pump water out of the cell
Cilia or flagellum used for motility