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Statistical Package For Social Sciences
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A T-test is a statistical examination of two population means. A twosample t-test examines whether two samples are different and is
commonly used when the variances of two normal distribution are
unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size.
When the sample size is small (n30) and the population standard
deviation is unknown, we use the t-distribution.
When sample size (n) is larger than 30, the t-distribution and zdistribution may be considered almost identical. This is why in SPSS,
there is only an option to do a t-test.

Obese people face discrimination on a daily basis in employment, education, and relationship
contexts. Past research has shown that even doctors, who are trained to treat all their patients
warmly and have access to literature suggesting uncontrollable and hereditary aspects of obesity,
believe obese individuals are undisciplined and suffer from controllability issues. This case study
examines how doctors treat overweight as compared to normal weight patients. Various doctors at
one of three major hospitals in the Texas Medical Center of Houston participated in the study. These
doctors were sent a packet containing a medical chart similar to the one they view upon seeing a
patient. This chart portrayed a patient who was displaying symptoms of a migraine headache but
was otherwise healthy. This chart also contained a measure of the patient's weight. Doctors were
randomly assigned to receive the chart of a patient who was overweight or the chart of a patient who
was of normal weight. After reviewing the chart, the doctors then had to indicate how much time
they believed they would spend with the patient.

Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to
compare observed data with data we would expect to
obtain according to a specific hypothesis.
A chi-squared test can then be used to reject the
hypothesis that the data are independent.
The chi-squared test is used to determine whether there
is a significant difference between the expected
frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or
more categories.

Most doctors would probably agree that a Mediterranean diet, rich in
vegetables, fruits, and grains, is healthier than a high-saturated fat
diet. Indeed, previous research has found that the diet can lower risk of
heart disease. However, there is still considerable uncertainty about
whether the Mediterranean diet is superior to a low-fat diet
recommended by the American Heart Association. This study is the first
to compare these two diets.
The subjects, 605 survivors of a heart attack, were randomly assigned
follow either (1) a diet close to the "prudent diet step 1" of the
American Heart Association (control group) or (2) a Mediterranean-type
diet consisting of more bread and cereals, more fresh fruit and
vegetables, more grains, more fish, fewer delicatessen foods, less
meat. An experimental canola-oil-based margarine was used instead of
butter or cream. The oils recommended for salad and food preparation
were canola and olive oils exclusively. Moderate red wine consumption
was allowed.

Over a four-year period, patients in the experimental

condition were initially seen by the dietician, two
months later, and then once a year. Compliance with
the dietary intervention was checked by a dietary
survey and analyses of plasma fatty acids. Patients in
the control group were expected to follow the dietary
advice given by their physician.
The researchers collected information on number of
deaths from cardiovascular causes e.g., heart attack,
strokes, as well as number of nonfatal heart-related
episodes. The occurrence of malignant and
nonmalignant tumors was also carefully monitored.

The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any significant
differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups.
The one-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups you are interested in and
determines whether any of those means are significantly different from each other.
Specifically, it tests the null hypothesis:

where = group mean and k = number of groups. If, however, the one-way ANOVA returns
a significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (H A), which is that there are at least
2 group means that are significantly different from each other.

A manager wants to raise the productivity at his company by
increasing the speed at which his employees can use a particular
spreadsheet program. As he does not have the skills in-house, he
employs an external agency which provides training in this
spreadsheet program. They offer 3 courses: a beginner, intermediate
and advanced course. He is unsure which course is needed for the
type of work they do at his company, so he sends 10 employees on
the beginner course, 10 on the intermediate and 10 on the advanced
course. When they all return from the training, he gives them a
problem to solve using the spreadsheet program, and times how long
it takes them to complete the problem. He then compares the three
courses (beginner, intermediate, advanced) to see if there are any
differences in the average time it took to complete the problem.