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Group 4

David Reis
Jeremy Huckins
Alberto Barraza
Nick Mellady

The Process of grinding

Grinding a chip
removal process
that uses an
abrasive grain as
the cutting tool.

Work pieces

Cylindrical, conical, fillets, helical, concave, slotting,

internal grinding

Naturally Occurring

Emery, corundum, quartz, garnet,


Grinding Wheels

Structure, wear, and fracture patterns

Grinding Wheels
The surface of
grinding wheels are
made up of these
Grains have random
irregular shapes that
are located at the
edge of the grinding

Common Grinding Wheels

Colored surfaces indicate grinding faces

Superabrasive wheels

Colored surfaces indicate grinding faces

Types of Bonds

Vitrified (ceramic bond) most common

type of bond. Resistant to water, oil, and
acids. Sometimes made with steel backing
plates to improve physical strength.
Resinold (thermosetting resins) Also
known as organic wheels. Resistant to
extremely high temperatures
Reinforced Wheels Made with layers of
fiberglass. If it did break it would not
disintegrate, it would just crack.

Types of Bonds

Thermoplastic sol-gel abrasives

bonded with thermo plastics
Rubber the most flexible bond.
Metal lowest cost. Used mainly
in small quantity production

Grinding Formula
L = (Dd)
Undeformed length = (Diameter)(depth)

Chip Formation
When a chip forms
ridges are formed
where the chip left
the material. This is
known as plowing.

Considerations while


If it gets too high it can:

Affect surface properties, including

metallurgical change
Cause residual stress on the work piece
Cause distortions in the work piece,
therefore accuracy goes down

Wheel wear

Once a wheel starts wearing it

becomes less accurate
Grain wear grains become flat
and dull
Bond fracture the bond breaks
and the grains come off the wheel

Grinding Ratio

G = Volume of material removed

Volume of wheel wear

These vary widely, ranging from 2 to 200+

Using grinding fluids can increase the life
of a grinding wheel 10 fold.

Shaping grinding wheels

The edges of grinding
wheels are shaped with
diamond dressing tools
controlled by
Shaping the wheel
sharpens it and restores
its accuracy.


Almost any material can be ground aluminum, steel, ceramics, even

diamond or glass.

How Grinding Is Used

Grinding is used whenever something

needs to be smoothed or shaped.
Grinding is used to form countless
types of products such as automobile
engines, sharp edges on knives, ball
bearings and drills. The smooth,
accurate surface of the Hubble
Telescope lens was formed by a
process of grinding and polishing.

Types of grinding Machines

Surface grinder

Cylindrical grinder

Universal Tool and Cutter Grinder

Lapping and Polishing

Cylindrical grinding

grinding centerless.

The bench grinder

Chemical Milling

chemical milling/blanking is a
chemical process that dissolves material
from unmasked (unprotected) areas of
metallic parts immersed in a tank of
heated and agitated chemical reagents.
The term "blanking" denotes small, thin
workpieces, and "milling" indicates
relatively large workpieces.
(a) Schematic illustration of
the chemical machining
process. Note that no forces
or machine tools are
involved in this process.
(b) Stages in producing a
profiled cavity by chemical
machining; note the

advantages compared
to punching, lasercutting and wireerosion
(top) Weight reduction of space launch
vehicles by chemical milling
aluminum-alloy plates. These panels are
chemically milled after the plates have
first been formed
into shape by processes such as roll
forming or stretch forming.
(left) Missile skin-panel section contoured
by chemical milling to improve the
stiffness to-weight ratio of the part.

Chemical milling
is used to reduce
the overall weight
and other non
desirable factors
of a workpiece

Process of Chem. Milling

1. Artwork and Negative Preparation
An image is printed by a program with a laser plotter directly to the film at any size
2. Photoresist Application / Exposure / Develop
Apply Photoresist coating to make the metal sensitive to light.
Expose coated metal to UV light source which applies the image from the art work to the metal part.
Treat exposed metal part with a developing solution which removes the soft portion of the Photoresist.
3. Etching / Resist Removal

Process the metal through chemical etcher which dissolves all metal not protected by the hardened photores

Electrochemical Machining

uses an electrolyte
at a high rate from
the tool piece to
wash away the
metal ions from the
the tool is usually
solid or tubular form
Material removal
rate is 1.5 4mm

ECM was developed in 1929

Not as widely used as other processes
Generally used to make complex
cavities and shapes
Finishes parts burr-free and bright
Never has any thermal damage to
part or wear on the tools

Parts From Electrochemical


Replacement Knees

Design Considerations for


ECM is not suitable for producing

sharp edges or flat sufaces
Flow of electrolyte can become
Designs should make provision for
a small taper for holes to be

Electrochemical Grinding

Process that combines electrochemical

machining with conventional grinding
Grinder wheel is embeded with abrasive
particles of dimond or aluminum oxide

Abrassives on the spindle have two


To act as insulators between the wheel

and workpiece
To remove electrolytic products from the
work area

Majority of material is removed by the

electrolytic action, less than 5% is removed by
the wheel

The ECG process is similar to that

of milling, and grinding
Much better than traditional
grinding where wheel wear is high

Electrical discharge

Erosion of metals
by spark discharge
Capacitor discharge
is between 50 and
380 V
EDM can be used
on any material
that is an electrical

Uses an
electrode that
sends out the
sparks which
erodes the
Uses dielectric
fluids for cooling
and flushing of
the material

EDM wire
Wire is brass,
copper or tungsten
With wire edm you
can basically cut out
any design

Laser-Beam Machining

Focuses optical energy on the work piece

The high focus high density energy melts
the material
Rough surface and has heat affected
Oxygen maybe added to the laser for increase
of energy, doing this leave a oxide free edge
which improves welding
Lasers are also used for etching

Design consideration with


Sharp corners should be avoided

Deep holes will have tapered walls
Dont use highly reflective material

Electron-Beam Machining

The energy source in EBM is highvelocity electrons that move from

50% to 80% the speed of light!
It is a lot like Laser beam
Machining but needs a vacuum
because it puts of harmful x-rays,
so is only used by trained

Electron Beam Machine

Plasma arc cutting is a type of EBM its

temp. gets from 9400 C to 17,000 C
Which makes the process much faster
the LBM and EDM with better products
EBM have limited machining because
of the vacuum capacity

Water Jet Machining

Cut a variety of metal and nonmetal

material up to 6-ft. x 12-ft. x 12-in. thick
Reduce machining time by as much as
Provide a burr-free finished edge
Leave no heat-affected zone (HAZ)
Reduce waste material
Eliminate costly set-up time

Water jet cutters

have no start holes
The jets have an
extremely high
No heat during
Very intricate

The water jet is the most versatile

machine on the market today
The water leaving the nozzle is from 400
MPa to 1400 MPa
The diameter of the spray is .05mm 1mm
It is used in lots of industries from wood,
to food processing, metal working
The material is wet very little
It is environmentally safe process

Abrasive water jet


The same thing is water jet but with

added abrasive particle, such as
silicon carbide or aluminum oxide
This increases the material rate
removal of the product
The machine is a little more
complicated cause it needs to mix
the contents

6.pdf - Supplemental Result
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and
Technology 2006