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Pump Fundamentals

& Special Applications

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Agenda
Pump Fundamentals
Head & Pressure
(Distinction)
System Curve
(Static / Dynamic Head)
NPSH & Cavitation (Importance)

Special Applications

Filter Press Feed


(Minimum & maximum conditions)
Cyclone Feed
(Cyclone pressure)
Slurry with Froth
(Froth factor)
Tailings
(Total TDH and elevation

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Head versus Pressure


HEAD is:

The elevation of a column of


liquid
The physical height above a
reference point
Measured in feet or meters
Independent of the liquid SG

PRESSURE is:
The force per unit area exerted
by the liquid column
Used to specify the equipment
requirements
Measured in KG/cm2, Bars, kPa
A function of the liquid SG

Used to confirm if pump design


The preferred method of
pressure rating is suitable for the
specifying pump performance
duty

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Effect of Specific Gravity on Static Head


30.5 M

30.5 kPa

30.5 M

30.5 M

Velocity = Head
Velocity is the key:
Impeller increases the liquids velocity
Casing converts velocity to pressure or head
Head in the casing increases as you travel around the perimeter
The larger the impeller or the faster the shaft speed the higher the
velocity
More Velocity = Higher Head

Casing
Impeller

Single Stage End


Suction Pump

Like this:
(Animated Graphic)

Pump Fundamentals
Static Differential Head = Elevation change (Fixed)
Friction Head Loss = Pipe friction (Variable)
Total Dynamic Head
Pressure (psi)

= Static Head + Friction loss


= TDH x SG / 2.31

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Velocity Head
Velocity Head (hvs) is the energy a liquid
requires to go from stationary state to
velocity V
Velocity Head (hvd) is the discharge energy a
liquid has as it goes out the discharge
Velocity Head = V2/2g
It is part of the total head calculation

Velocity Head
Example:
Water shoots out the top of a vertical pipe a certain
height (drinking fountain)
Head in the pipe can be measured with a Gauge.
The height it shoots out of the pipe cannot.
That height above the pipe is roughly the Velocity
Head.

Pump Performance Equations


Total Dynamic Head (TDH)

TDH = (Hd - Hs) + Hvs + Hvd + Hf


Hd = Discharge Head (feet or meters)
Hs = Suction Head (feet or meters)
Hvs = Velocity Head - Suction
Hvd = Velocity Head - Discharge
Hf = Friction loss

System Friction Curve


SYSTEM FRICTION CURVE
A Graph which represents the Total Head that a pump
must produce to deliver various quantities of liquid to a
given discharge location in the System
. Consists of:
The Static Head (elevation difference)
The Frictional Head (resistance to flow)

System Friction Curves

System Friction Curves


FRICTIONAL TABLES: 4 Std. Steel Pipe

The System TDH

TDH = (Hd

disch

- H s ) + H v + Hv
suct

ent

exit

Hf

pipe

System Head Curve


Selected flow: 250

New Pt. at 6.0 210 @ 155 Ft.

Static Head

Original Pt: 150 GPM @ 100 Ft.

Net Positive Suction Head

The Head (absolute) required at the impeller eye for the


pump operating at RPM necessary to deliver the flow
rate at specified TDH
It is roughly equal to barometric pressure (in feet / meters
of slurry) plus or minus static head less friction losses
in te piping and vapor pressure of the liquid
NPSHR = hatm + Hs - hv - hvp - hf
suct

SG

ent

suct

(All values at the impeller eye)

Net Positive Suction Head

T
o
t
a
l
H
e
a
d
F
e
e
t

Constant Flow
of Total
Head

NPSH at 3% drop = 8 ft.

Question - What happens when NPSHA drops below NPSHR?

Cavitation
Cavitation occurs when the Pressure
(NPSHAvailable) at the impeller eye drops below
the Vapor Pressure (NPSHRequired)
Cavitation is the continuous formation and
collapse of Vapor Bubbles as the liquid
travels through the impeller
This collapse (Implosion) of the bubbles
releases a lot of energy causing damage to
the impeller and other wear components

Cavitation Damage

Special Applications
Filter Press Feed
Usually the final or waste slurry product is fed into a filter cloth
press to be dewatered and form a cake for transport / disposal
Pressure or vacuum is applied to reduce the moisture content
Pump starts at high flow, low head & low RPM (VFD control)
As the press starts to fill up flow starts to decrease and pump
RPM is increased to overcome the increased resistance
Filter presses run in cycles per hour - 3, 4, 5 or 6
Need to know the two extreme duty points along with slurry
details to correctly select and size the pump

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Special Applications
Filter Press Feed
Duty Points:
Max flow:
1,345 gpm (305 m3/hr) 81.5 ft (24.8 m) 60 psi (414 kPa)
Min flow:194 gpm (44 m3/hr)
244.5 ft (74.5 m) 180 psi (1242 kPa)

Slurry: Cw=65%, SGSolids=2.7, d80=209 M, SGSlurry=1.7


Filter presses cycles per hour 5
Packed box with seal water. Often dry gland expellers used
VFD controlled motor & end of cycle recirculation mode
Select pump model, size, RPM and motor size
Pump = 4x6-21 Model 5500

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4x6-21 Model 5500 - Duty Points

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Special Applications
Cyclone Feed
Usually used to separate the coarse and fine solid factions in
the slurry P80 split
Typically used primary and secondary grinding circuits like the
SAG mill and ball mill
The required cyclone pressure converted to head must be
added to the TDH. No discharge velocity head is included in
the TDH calculation
Cyclone inlet pressure (usually 12-15 psi or 83-104 kPa) is
converted to head and added to the TDH
As pump wears, VFDs often used to maintain cyclone pressure

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Special Applications
Cyclone Feed
Duty Point:
Duty:
1,100 gpm (250 m3/hr) 65.2 ft (19.9 m) 48 psi (331 kPa)
Cyclone: 12 psi (83 kPa) = 16.3 ft (5.0 m)

Slurry: Cw=65%, SGSolids=2.7, d80=2000 M, SGSlurry=1.7


TDH = 50 (hstatic) + 4.8 (hentrance) + 10.4 (hfriction) + 16.3 (hcyclone) = 81.5 ft
Packed box with seal water. Sometimes dry gland expellers used
What happened to the hdischarge ?
Pump = 6x6-21 Model SRL-XT, NR lined
Metal impellers preferred

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6x6-21 Model SRL-XT

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Special Applications
Slurry with Air / Froth
Reagents are used to form bubbles to float mineral sulfide of
some ores for recovery. Example: MoS2 (Molybdenum Disulfide)
Froth is difficult to pump and can cause performance issues like
Air binding of the impeller eye
Reduced flow, TDH and efficiency

Some of the options to handle froth include


Using an oversize pump for the larger volume
Special forth pump with a larger inlet an inducer type impeller
Goulds SRL-S pump with Shearpeller

SRL-S pump can handle up to 2.5 froth factor without over sizing

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Shearpeller
Unique impeller design to handle
slurries with froth / entrained air
or long / stringy particles
Replaces standard impeller
Larger pump not required
Variety of materials available

TM

Model SRL - S

8 Sizes

2x2-10
3x3-10
5x4-15
8x6-18
10x8-21
12x10-25
14x12-29
16x14-34

Flows to 20,000 GPM


Heads to 125 Feet
Froth factors to 2.5

Slurry with Air / Froth


Scavenger Concentrate Overflow pump
Slurry flow = 700 usgpm.
Slurry:

Cw=30%

TDH = 75-ft.

SGSolids=3.4

Froth factor = 3.0

SGSlurry=1.26

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5x4-14 Model SRL-S

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5x4-14 Model SRL-S


When using the SRL-S pump, please note the following:
Without froth, a 5x4-14 SRL-C pump is suitable for the service
With 3.0 froth factor, the larger 10x8-21 SRL-C pump is required (Selection A)
The 10x8-21 SRL-C pump efficiency has been corrected for losses due to high froth
However, a standard 5x4-14 SRL-C pump can be easily retrofitted in the field to a
ShearpellerTM arrangement with no modifications to the piping and/or foundations
Both the 5x4-14 SRL-S (Selection B) and 10x8-21 SRL-C (Selection A) require 75
HP motors
The 5x4-14 SRL-C duty point is left of BEP whereas the 10x8-12 SRL-C is past the
BEP
Capital cost for 5x4-14 SRL-S pump is much lower than the 10x8-21 SRL-C pump
Always select SRL-S duty point left of BEP
Preferable range is 50% - 95% of BEP

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Special Applications
Tailings Pumps in Series
As the name implies, these pumps transport refuse at the end of
the process to the tailings disposal site
Slurry is transported over a long pipeline to a higher elevation
Total head is usually high requiring more than one pump
Sometimes more pumps are used for lower RPM

More pumps = more $ but less wear


System pressure can be high requiring higher pressure casings
Particles are usually fine suitable for rubber-lined pumps

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Tailings Pumps
You can calculate the system head if static head,
pipeline length, diameter & material are known
Sometimes, pipe size recommendation is requested
Important to know critical carrying velocity
We use between 4.5 fps (1.5 mps) 12 fps (3.7 mps)

Hazen & Williams formula is the easiest method to


calculate system friction loss

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Multi-Stage Tailings Line


Note the following for Tailings pipeline:
Account for highest point in system when
determining static head
High density polyethylene with appropriate pressure
rating is commonly used
Speed adjustment is often required due to changes
in flow & elevation
One or more pumps may have VFD control

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Special Applications
Multi-Stage Tailings
Duty Point:
Duty:

5000 gpm (1,136 m3/hr)

Suction pipe = 14 ID (350 mm)

750 ft (228.6 m) 393 psi (2,712 kPa)

Length 10 ft (3.3 m) Vs = 10.4 fps (3.2 mps)

Discharge pipe = 16 ID (400 mm) Length 18,300 ft (5.6 km) Vd = 8.0 fps (2.4 mps)

Copper tailings: Cw=28%, SGSolids=2.65, d80=100 M, SGSlurry=1.21

TDH = 550 (hstatic) + 1.7 (hentrance) + 197.3 (hfriction) + 1.0 (hexit) = 750 ft
A single stage centrifugal pump cannot produce this TDH
Options include 4, 5 or 6 pumps in series
Rubber impeller can be used with 6 pumps in series
Pump = 14x12-29 Model SRL-CXHD (400 psi) NR lined
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MULTI-STAGE PUMPING
EXAMPLE
If we go with rubber and 6 pumps in series,
Conditions for single pump with 125 ft TDH should
be entered into ePrism
Sometimes better to enter six individual pumps with
same TDH but different suction pressures. This
way the correct motor sizes can be selected
ePrism cannot currently differentiate between a
single and multi-stage service. You must manually
select the high pressure (400 psi) version of the
14x12-29 SRL-CXHD pump
Always better to have at least two pumps with VFD
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MULTI-STAGE PUMPING

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MULTI-STAGE PUMPING

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MULTI-STAGE PUMPING

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ANY QUESTIONS ?

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