You are on page 1of 10

NEGOTIATION in Brief…

The Nature of Negotiation

 When most people hear the word negotiation they usually think of
large, complex, formal deliberations.

 In fact, all of us negotiate every day, for example, in one or more of


the following situations:
 We arrive at an intersection simultaneously with three other cars
 We need to decide how to share a scarce resource
 We must work out an arrangement with other people to share
the tasks and chores of daily living
 We need to influence someone to change his or her mind
When is Negotiation Needed?

1. Two or more parties must make a decision about their


interdependent goals and objectives.
2.
3.
4. The parties are committed to peaceful means for resolving
their dispute.
5.
6.
7. There is no clear or established method or procedure for
making the decision.
Fear of Negotiating
 It is important to understand several things:
 Given all of the situations in which we are interdependent with others
 If we truly fear conflict, we will probably either avoid taking any position
or we will take an arbitrary and (probably) unrealistic position, and still
not get what we want.
 Negotiation does not have to be a hostile, bloody, or psychologically
intimidating process to be successful.

 A second reason people fear negotiation is that many of us have the
idea that to be successful at negotiation we need to be verbally glib
– very articulate, very persuasive, a fast and smooth talker, even a
con artist.
Fear of Negotiating (Continue..)

 Negotiation is a complex human activity.


 It involves a dynamic interpersonal process.
 It requires the intellectual ability to understand the key factors that tend to
shape and characterize different negotiation situations.
 It requires skills, both behavioral and analytical, to diagnose negotiation
problems and select the correct strategies and approaches.
 It also requires and understanding of one’s own personality and one’s
system of personal ethics and values, because these will affect how we
perceive situations and how we determine the appropriate strategy and
tactics.
 Finally, negotiation is a learnable process.

Core Model of Negotiation

VERTICAL
ISSUES PROPOSALS PROBLEMS ASSUMPTIONS

UNDERLYING CONCERNS

INTERNAL
HORIZONTAL
Stabilizers, Non Stabilizers & Quasi
Mediator

STABILIZERS Seek agreements


Avoid disruptive consequences

Seek opportunities to settle

NON STABILIZERS Do not like the negotiation


Tend to disagree with most of the proposals

Tend to use power and see the disruption

QUASI MEDIATOR Plays several roles


Act as spokesperson of success

Mediator between Stabilizers and Non Stabilizers


The Behavior of Successful
Negotiators

 He should be rated as effective by both sides



 He should have a track record of significant successes

 He should have a low incidence of implementation failure

 (The Rackhman Study)


Face – to – Face (Skilled Negotiators)

AVOID USE

IRRITATORS Behavior labeling (except disagreeing)

COUNTERPROPOSALS Testing understanding and summarizing

DEFEND/ATTACK SPIRALS Lots of questions

ARGUMENT DILUTION Feelings commentary


Effective Planning for Negotiating
 Amount of Planning Time

 Exploring Options

 Common Ground

 Long Term VS Short Term

 Setting Limits

 Sequence and Issue Planning