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Embryonic and Fetal

Development
Conception includes

A. Fertilization
B. Pre-Embryonic period
C. Embryonic period
D. Fetal period
A. Fertilization

Fertilization occurs when one sperm enters


the ovum and the two nuclei containing the
parents’ chromosomes merge
i) Entry of one spermatozoon into the ovum
ii) Fusion of the Nuclei of sperm and ovum
B. Pre-Embryonic Period
The Pre-Embryonic Period is the First 2
weeks after conception
It consist of Initiation of cell division, Entry
of the zygote into the uterus, Implantation
in the decidua, Maintaining the decidua,
Location and Implantation and Mechanism
of Implantation
C. Embryonic Period

Beginning of 3rd week through 8th week


after conception
Basic structures of all major body organs
are completed during embryonic period
Weekly Developments
Development of the Embryo and Fetus
* Cephalo caudal direction
* Central to peripheral direction
2nd Week
* Implantation completed by end of 2nd Wk
*Trophoblast grows fastly
*Inner mass becomes flattened into
embryonic disk
3rd Week
1st menstrual cycle missed

Embryonic disc develops 3 layers


a. Ectoderm
b. Endoderm
c. Mesoderm

contd…
Derivatives of the three germ layers
Ectoderm
-Brain and spinal cord
-Peripheral Nervous system
-Pituitary gland
-Sensory Epithelium of the eye, ear and nose
-Epidermis, Hair & Nails
-Subcutaneous & Mammary glands
-Tooth enamel
MesoDerm

Cartilage
-Bone, Connective tissue, Muscle tissue
-Heart, Blood vessels, Blood cells, Lymphatic
system,
-Spleen, kidneys, Adrenal cortex
-Ovaries, Testes and Reproductive system
lining membranes
Endo Derm
Lining of G.I and Respiratory tracts
- Tonsils and Thyroid
- Parathyroid, Thymus
- Liver
- Pancreas
- Lining of urinary bladder and urethra
- Lining of Ear canal
contd…
CNS begins developing 3rd week
Thickened flat neural plate appears, extends
toward end of Embryonic disk- becomes
Head
Heart develops as a pair of parallel tubes and
joins together
Primitive heart begins beating at 21-22 days
Primitive blood cells arise from the
endoderm lining the distal blood vessels
Fourth Week
The shape of the Embryo changes
It folds at the Head and Tail end and
laterally. Remains in C- shape
Tail is apparent because brain and spinal
cord develop more rapidly than other
systems
Neural tube closed by 4th week. If not
Anencephaly and Spinabifida results

contd…
4 - WEEKS
Formation of Face and U.R.T begins
Beginnings of internal ear and Eye apparent
Upper extremities appear as buds on the lateral body
walls
Heart partition into four chambers completed by 6th
week
L.R.T begins as a branch of upper digestive tract
Esophagus and trachea separate completely
Trachea branches to right and left bronchi &
Then forms Lobs, Alveoli rich capillary network that
allows o2 &Co2 at birth
Fifth Week
Head is very large because the brain grows
rapidly
Heart is beating and developing 4 chambers
Upper limb buds are paddle shaped with
obvious notches of fingers
Lower limbs are paddle shaped but area
between the toes is not well defined
Sixth Week
Prominent Head due to rapid development
and is bent over the chest
Heart reaches its final 4 chambered form
Upper & Lower extremities become more
defined
Eye continues to develop, External ear is
apparent as 6 small bumps near each side of
neck
Facial development with eyes ,ears & nasal
pits ( widely seperated )
Seventh Week
Growth in all systems & refinement
occurs

Face becomes more human looking

Eye lids begin to grow, Extremities


longer & better defined

Trunk elongates & straightens, C-shaped


spinal curve present still birth
contd…
Intestines grows faster than abdominal
cavity

Large liver & kidney occupies more space

Umbilical cord contains most of the


intestines

At 10th week abdomen is large to contain all


its contents
Eighth Week
Definite human form & refinement of all
systems continue
Low-set ears but approaching their final
location
Eyes are pigmented , not fully covered by
eyelids
Fingers & Toes are stubby but well defined
External genitalia begin to differentiate but
Male Female characteristics are not distinct
8 - WEEKS
D. Fetal Period

9 weeks after conception & ends with birth


Dramatic growth and refinement in the
structure & function of all organ systems
Less likely teratogen may damage already
formed structures
CNS is vulnerable for damage through out
pregnancy
Weeks 9 - 12

Head is large ie half of the total length of


the fetus
Body grows fast than head
Final relative length of extremities but leg
remain shorter than arms
First fetal movements begin but too slight
Face is broad, wide nose & Widely spaced
eyes
Eyes closes at 9 weeks & reopen at about
26 weeks contd…
12 - WEEKS
Low-set ears because Mandible is still
small
Abdominal capacity increases intestinal
contents enters in to it
At 9th wk blood formation in liver that
shifts to spleen by end of 12th wk
Urine produced & excrete into Amniotic
fluid
contd...
Male & Female internal differences
apparent in 7th week

External genitalia looks similar until end of


9th week

At 12th wk fetal sex can be determined by


external genitalia appearance
Week 13 - 16

Rapid growth in length, so head becomes


smaller in proportion to the total length
Strengthened Quickening mother able to
find if it is 2nd gravida
Resembles human face due to eyes face
forward
Ears in final position, in line with the
eyes
16 - WEEKS
Weeks 17 - 20
Fetal movements like “Fluttering” or
“Butterflies”
Evident changes in skin and hair
Vernix Caseosa – protect from constant
exposure to Amniotic fluid
Lanugo – help the vernix to adhere to the
skin
Eye brows and head hair appears
Brown Fat – back of neck, behind sternum
& around kidneys
20 WEEKS
Weeks 21 - 24

Growth continues & gaining weight but thin


& little subcutaneous fat
Translucent skin & looks red Because
capillaries are close to its fragile surface
Lungs produce surfactant
Capillary network of alveoli increased but it
is immature. although some gas exchange is
possible
22 to 25 weeks fetus may survive with
Intensive care
24 WEEKS
Weeks 25 - 28
More likely to survive if born after 24 wks
Because of maturation of lungs, pulmonary
capillaries & CNS
Subcutaneous fat deposition make fetus
plumper & smoother- skinned
Skin becomes less red
Re-opening of eyes, abundant head hair
contd…
Blood formation shifts from spleen to bone
marrow
Fetus assumes head-down position for 2
reasons
* Uterus is like inverted egg.
* Fetal head is heavier than feet
Weeks 29-32

Smooth skin, pigmented according to race


Larger vessels are visible over abdomen
but not small capillaries
Toenails present, finger nails extended to
the finger Tips
More Subcutaneous rounding the body
contours
If born chances of survival is good
31 to 32 WEEKS
Weeks 33-38
Until birth growth continues but rate slows
as full term approaches.
Gaining weight
Matured pulmonary system enables
efficient & unlabored breath after birth
Well-nourished term fetus is round with
abundant subcutaneous fat
Lanugo in forehead, upper back, upper
arms contd…
Vernix remain in groin and Axilla
Full term ranges from 36 to 40 weeks of
fertilization or 38 to 42 weeks of
gestational age