Impedance
Av =  (ZF/Z1)
ZF
Z1
Vin
Vo
+
ZL
Inverting
Configuration
 : 180 phase
shift
Z=ajb
Z = M < (polar
form)
M = Sqrt(a2 + b2)
= tan1 (b/a)
Z = M Cos + j M
Sin
Noninverting Configuration
Av = 1+ (ZF/Z1)
Av = (Z1+ZF)/Z1
Differentiator
dv/d
t
V(t
)
Differentiator
Differentiator
l Av l = l R/(1/jC) l = l jRC l = RC
Av = RC <90 = RC <90
R
C
Vin
Vo
+
RL
Differentiator
electronicstutorials.ws
Practical Differentiator
RF
R1
C

Vin
Vo
+
RL
Practical Differentiator
Problem: noise at high frequency
To reduce noise at high frequency a resistor is
placed in series with the input capacitor
To reduce noise, R1 < RF
R1 may be chosen such that 10R1< RF to reduce
high frequency gain and noise
Before adding R1: Gain characteristics of
unmodified differentiator is superimposed on a
typical opamp openloop Bode plot; differentiator
will act correctly up to f0
After adding R1: differentiator gain levels off at f1
lAl
(dB)
AOL
Practical
Differentiator
Before adding
lAl
After adding R1
R1
(dB)
AOL
f0
Log f
f1 = 1/(2R1C)
f1
Log f
Differentiation of Nonsinusoidal
Inputs
Integrator
Process of integration is complementary to that
of differentiation
Relationship is analogous to that between
multiplication and division
Function being integrated is called integrand, and
dt is called the differential
Integration produces equivalent of the
continuous sum of values of function at infinitely
many infinitesimally small increments of t
Output of integrator will maintain 90 phase lead,
regardless of frequency
Integrator
V(t)
V(t) dt + C
C1
R1
Vin
Vo
+
RL
Integrator
Av =  (ZF/Z1) =  1/(jCR)
Reset
Vo
+
RL
Integration of Nonsinusoidal
Inputs
Constant voltage:
V0 = Vin t / RC
V0 = 0 at starting
Ramp input:
V0 =  kt2 / 2R
k is rate of
change of Vin (V/s)
Integrator
Integrator effectively accumulates voltage over
time; presence of input offset voltage will cause
capacitor to charge up producing error in output
Smaller the capacitor, more quickly offset error
builds up with time
Solutions
Use of larger capacitor
Use of lowoffset op amps
Bias compensation resistor R B on noninverting terminal
Use of resistor RC in parallel with feedback capacitor
RC 10R1
Practical Integrator
RC
C
R1
Vin
Vo
+
RL
RB = R1 ll
RC