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Op-Amp With Complex

Impedance
Av = - (ZF/Z1)
ZF
Z1
Vin

Vo

+
ZL

Inverting
Configuration

- : 180 phase
shift
Z=ajb
Z = M < (polar
form)
M = Sqrt(a2 + b2)
= tan-1 (b/a)
Z = M Cos + j M
Sin

Op-Amp With Complex


Impedance
ZF
Z1
Vo
+
ZL
Vin

Noninverting Configuration

Av = 1+ (ZF/Z1)
Av = (Z1+ZF)/Z1

Differentiator

Differentiator: circuit whose output is


proportional to the derivative of its input
Derivative of a function is the instantaneous
slope or rate of change of function
Output of differentiator is proportional to the rate
of change of input signal, with respect to time
Output of op amp differentiator will always lag
input by 90 (inversion of true derivative)
V(t)

dv/d
t

V(t
)

Differentiator

Operational Amplifiers and


Linear Integrated Circuits:
Theory and Applications by

Differentiator

l Av l = l R/(1/jC) l = l jRC l = RC
Av = -RC <90 = RC <-90
R
C
Vin

Vo

+
RL

Differentiator

Main problem with op


amp differentiator is
noise sensitivity
Gain of ideal
differentiator is zero at
dc, and increases with
frequency at a rate of
20 dB/decade
High frequency noise
will tend to be
amplified greatly

electronicstutorials.ws

Practical Differentiator
RF
R1

C
-

Vin

Vo

+
RL

To reduce gain to high frequency noise, a


resistor is placed in series with the input
resistor

Practical Differentiator
Problem: noise at high frequency
To reduce noise at high frequency a resistor is
placed in series with the input capacitor
To reduce noise, R1 < RF
R1 may be chosen such that 10R1< RF to reduce
high frequency gain and noise
Before adding R1: Gain characteristics of
unmodified differentiator is superimposed on a
typical op-amp open-loop Bode plot; differentiator
will act correctly up to f0
After adding R1: differentiator gain levels off at f1

lAl
(dB)
AOL

Practical
Differentiator
Before adding
lAl
After adding R1
R1

(dB)
AOL

f0

Log f

f1 = 1/(2R1C)

f1

Log f

Differentiation of Nonsinusoidal
Inputs

Linear ramp input:


V0 = -RCk
K: function slope
(V/s)
Triangular input:
V0 = -RCkn
Kn: function slope
(V/s)

Operational Amplifiers and


Linear Integrated Circuits:
Theory and Applications by
Denton J. Dailey

Integrator
Process of integration is complementary to that
of differentiation
Relationship is analogous to that between
multiplication and division
Function being integrated is called integrand, and
dt is called the differential
Integration produces equivalent of the
continuous sum of values of function at infinitely
many infinitesimally small increments of t
Output of integrator will maintain 90 phase lead,
regardless of frequency

Integrator
V(t)

V(t) dt + C

C1
R1
Vin

Vo

+
RL

Operational Amplifiers and


Linear Integrated Circuits:
Theory and Applications by
Denton J. Dailey

Integrator

Av = - (ZF/Z1) = - 1/(jCR)

Reset

l Av l = l 1/(RC) l and phase = 90


C1
Av = 1/(RC) <90
R1
f 0 (dc), Av
Vin

Reset switch added to


force integrator initial
conditions to zero

Vo

+
RL

Integration of Nonsinusoidal
Inputs

Constant voltage:
V0 = -Vin t / RC
V0 = 0 at starting

Ramp input:
V0 = - kt2 / 2R
k is rate of
change of Vin (V/s)

Operational Amplifiers and


Linear Integrated Circuits:
Theory and Applications by
Denton J. Dailey

Integrator (Square Wave


Input)
V1 = - (Vmt(+))/RC
t(+) = t t0
V2 = V1 + [(Vmt(-))/RC]

Operational Amplifiers and


Linear Integrated Circuits:
Theory and Applications by
Denton J. Dailey

Integrator
Integrator effectively accumulates voltage over
time; presence of input offset voltage will cause
capacitor to charge up producing error in output
Smaller the capacitor, more quickly offset error
builds up with time
Solutions
Use of larger capacitor
Use of low-offset op amps
Bias compensation resistor R B on noninverting terminal
Use of resistor RC in parallel with feedback capacitor
RC 10R1

Practical Integrator
RC
C
R1
Vin

Vo

+
RL
RB = R1 ll
RC