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"'You, your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will, are in fact no more than the behavior of a vast assembly of nerve cells and their associated molecules."

-Francis Crick

"If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is the atomic hypothesis (or the atomic fact or whatever you wish to call it) that all things are made of atoms — little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. In that one sentence, you will see, there is an enormous amount of information about the world, if just a little imagination and thinking are applied"

-Richard P. Feynman

"For the real amazement, if you wish to be amazed, is this process. You start out as a single cell derived from the coupling of a sperm and egg; this divides in two, then four, then eight and so on, and at a certain stage there emerges a single cell which has as all its progeny the human brain. The mere existence of such a cell should be one of the great astonishments of the earth. People ought to be walking around all day, all through their waking hours calling to each other in endless wonderment, talking of nothing except that cell."

-Lewis Thomas

If you can't explain it to a high school student you probably don't understand it."

-Richard P. Feynman

"If I could explain it to you, it wouldn't have been worthy of a Nobel Prize."

-Richard P. Feynman

“The best thing you can do for the environment is kill yourself”

-Fred Loucks

"I say that everything bar nothing, being a possibility, we are placing our bets right now on the wrong tables, exploring regions of reality where our senses are not reliably sensitive, when there are obvious things needing our attention right now, where our senses are reliable. Let's look our for long-term comets and straying asteroids. Let's go to Mars. Let's do biochemistry. Let's think about what kinds of senses people have and how they can use them to their advantage. Let's not spend our time and resources thinking about things that are so little or so large that all they really do for us is puff us up and make us feel like gods. We are mammals, and we have not exhausted the annoying little problems of being mammals. "

-Kary Mullis

"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science."

-Lord Kelvin

"Light, strong, cheap ... -Pick two."

-Keith Bontrager

MechanoEvolution

Bradley Layton

Assistant Professor

Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Drexel University Philadelphia, PA USA

February April 27, 2007

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS FEEDING OURSELVES w/ ENERGY AND INFORMATION THREE WAYS OUT

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

  • - Indiana

  • - MIT

  • - Michigan

  • - Drexel MechanoEvolution Class 2005, 2006

SEYMOUR INDIANA, SLIM CALLIS, RICK SCHULEY, GARY CHRISTOPHER, RICHARD SCHULEY

SEYMOUR INDIANA, SLIM CALLIS, RICK SCHULEY, GARY CHRISTOPHER, RICHARD SCHULEY The word of the day …
SEYMOUR INDIANA, SLIM CALLIS, RICK SCHULEY, GARY CHRISTOPHER, RICHARD SCHULEY The word of the day …

The word of the dayWhy dont you comb your hairMichigan Institute of Trucking ...

MIT Elzbieta Ettinger (ELIZABETH CHODAKOWSKA, The T)

Delbrück, M. (1986), Mind From Matter? An Essay on Evolutionary Epistemology

MIT Elzbieta Ettinger (ELIZABETH CHODAKOWSKA, The T) Delbr ü ck, M. (1986), Mind From Matter? An
Nobel Laureate-led course Elzbieta Ettinger Hunger On the T:
Nobel Laureate-led course
Elzbieta Ettinger
Hunger
On the T:

Head of the Charles 1993

Regardless of what you do youll always have to write ...

University of Michigan Pulling Nerves

 

3

Force

2

(N)

 

1

0

 max F max E 40% F relax 20% 10% 5% 0 50 100 150 200
 max
F max
E
40%
F relax
20%
10%
5%
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
time(s)
unstrained sciatic nerve
unstrained
sciatic
nerve
strained sciatic nerve Figure 3
strained
sciatic
nerve
Figure 3

MECHANOEVOLUTION

Simple weekly take-home quizzes on the upcoming weeks lecture will be given

and will count for 50% of your grade.

A final report summarizing a topic of your choice from the syllabus will count for

30% of your grade. The length of the paper should be between 3,000 and 10,000

words. The paper will be graded on the basis of clarity, organization and originality.

This course is writing intensive and you are required to meet with WITS at

least twice during the term for writing support. If you have any questions about

the role of writing in learning, please see our web page

(www.drexel.edu/provost/writing) or contact: Pol Montgomery,

witmanager@gmail.com. A mid-term version of your project is due in the sixth class

meeting, on May 12th and the final project is due June 12th, or earlier if you are

graduating. You should meet with the writing advisor between the fourth and fifth

weeks and again between the seventh and eighth weeks. Additional critical notes

about your writing assignment: Your writing should include at least the following:

You must include some type of mathematical model of the artifact,

phenomena, trait, or idea you are discussing.

You must have at least ten valid citations from either journal literature or

textbooks. Web references are allowed, but will not be included in the list of

ten.

You must extrapolate your discussion into the distant past and into the distant

future.

You must include comparisons to biology if your paper is primarily

technological and comparisons to technology if your paper is primarily

biolo ical

MECHANOEVOLUTION

MECHANOEVOLUTION

MECHANOEVOLUTION Spring 2006 Student topics

Evolution of love

Evolution of information

Evolution of human intelligence

The evolution of warfare and weaponry

The evolution of flight

Innovations of the piano

Nitrogen and human interaction

Intelligence outside the brain

Evolution of fuel delivery to internal combustion engines

Evolution of computing

Evolutionary aspects of germline engineering

The evolution of sonar navigation

The heart and its replacement

MECHANOEVOLUTION

TERM PROJECT: THE EVOLUTIONOF WEAPONRY Abstract:

Evolution is based on natural selection. Nowhere is natural selection more apparent and dominant than on a battlefield. Weapons are objects designed by human beings to overcome their innate physical weaknesses in the realm of combat with other species and groups of human beings.

Since the dawn of mankind, humans have been using weapons to carve out their ascendancy on other humans and animals. This paper aims at examining the role played by certain key weapons through the history of human civilization and how they proved to be the deciding factor for survival of certain cultures and civilization in various cases.

In this paper, I aim to quantify and evaluate the evolution in design; conception and manufacturing process for certain key weapons. I will try to analyze the ascendancy of various designs for individual weapons and how one design dominated and ultimately became the pre-eminent weapons of their era.

Given the huge variety of weapons developed by man since the Stone Age, I will confine my study to certain key weapons and eras. I aim to study the evolution of hand held weapons such as the bow, the lance, the axe and the sword etc and how they dictated the way wars were fought and won. I will also try to analyze certain platforms on which these weapons were employed such as the chariot, Armor, heavy cavalry and the phalanx and so on.

The scope of this paper covers the evolution of weaponry from the Stone Age to the dawn of the gunpowder era. The evolution of gunpowder based weapons is not covered since that would require a separate study on its own.

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS FEEDING OURSELVES w/ ENERGY AND INFORMATION THREE WAYS OUT

MECHANOEVOLUTION WHAT IT IS

MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS EVOLUTION: Successful passage of information from the past to the future SPECIES: A discrete unit capable of sharing information with the sole purpose of persisting into the future (not necessarily in the same form, but in an uninterrupted lineage) TECHNOLOGY REPLICATION: Machine selection is driven by human utility MACHINES AS PROSTHETICS: Machines that improve the likelihood of human DNA persistence survive as well MATERIAL CONTINUITY: Biology passes actual physical materials (DNA) in an unbroken lineage. Machines do not do this yet without human intervention.

OUTLINE

EVOLUTION:

  • - Successful passage of information from the past to the future

  • - Favors simplicity (virus), but also occasionally rewards

complexity (human)

  • - Seems to favor efficiency (high reproduction rate / energy

throughput ratio) but also rewards inefficiency (high casualty

cost to protect species members)

  • - Seems to encourage modeling (navigation systems, sensory systems, decision systems, alternative genetic pathways,

Newtonian mechanics) but also rewards ignorance

  • - Becomes increasingly energetically expensive to maintain

low entropy locally, the higher on the information food chain*

one becomes, making many members vulnerable (humans only)

*Shrodinger

BIO VS. TECHNO

FUNCTION

BIO

TECHNO

information

DNA

BLUEPRINT

entropy

MEMBRANE

MATERIAL

resistance

energy source

SUN

COMBUSTION

ladder pushing

KILL / EAT

WAR

 

REPRODUC-

BUSINESS

ladder pulling

TION

MERGER

MOORE’s LAW of MechanoEvolution

10 y parts in a machine organism complexity 12 12 11 11 10 10 9 9
10 y parts in a machine
organism complexity
12
12
11
11
10
10
9
9
8
8
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
10 x years ago

MACHINE TYPES

TYPE I: low energy, entropy limited, slow evolution

hammer, microscope, telescope, wheelbarrow,

eyeglasses, bicycle, table

TYPE II: high energy, entropy spewing, rapid evolution

computer, car, airplane, MRI machine, air filter,

lawnmower, dishwasher, cell phone, brain implants, PDA

TYPE III: high energy, entropy spewing, self replicating

artificial plasmids??, self-reproducing robots,

TYPE IV: high energy, entropy dogpile, bio techno integration

Kreyszigs GNR, nanorobots, Terminator

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS

FEEDING OURSELVES w/ ENERGY AND INFORMATION

THREE WAYS OUT

OUTLINE

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS

Richard Feynman (1918-1988): Plenty of Room at the Bottom

Arthur C. Clark (1917-), Futurist, predicts space elevator

Richard Dawkins (1941-): Evolutionary Biologist

Jared Diamond (1937-): Anthropologist

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832): Thermodynamacist

Claude Shannon (1916-2001): Information Theory

Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961): Life Eats Chemical Information

John Avery: Information Theory and Biology

Hubert Yockey: Information Theory and Evolution

Antonella Vannini: Syntropy, Info from Future

Bradley Edwards: Space Elevator

Rusty Schweickart: Gravity Tractor

Ray Kurzweil: The Singularity, silicon immortality

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Richard Feynman

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Richard Feynman “ The only two engineers who contributed anything to science were Carnot and

The only two engineers who

contributed anything to

science were Carnot and

Shannon

Quiet, we are observing

something holywhen he first

saw the images from an early

atomic force microscope

Theres plenty of room at the bottom, 1957

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Arthur C. Clarke

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Arthur C. Clarke Over thirty Sci-fi novels between 1951 and present A space elevator: 1960s

Over thirty Sci-fi novels

between 1951 and present

A space elevator: 1960s

2001: 1964

2010: 1982

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Richard Dawkins

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Richard Dawkins Also by Dawkins: The Selfish Gene, (1976) The God Delusion, (2007) Continuous web

Also by Dawkins:

The Selfish Gene, (1976)

The God Delusion, (2007)

Continuous web between all

currently living organisms.

Cousins all are we.

The Ancestors Tale (2004)

Richard Dawkins

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Jared Diamond

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Jared Diamond Also by Diamond: Guns, Germs and Steel (1997) Collapse (2005) Metabolic budgeting for

Also by Diamond:

Guns, Germs and Steel (1997)

Collapse (2005)

Metabolic budgeting for

reproductive organs, muscles,

etc.

The Third Chimpanzee, 1992

Jared Diamond

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Carnot

Maximum mechanical work accomplishable is a function of the gradient or discrepancy between two thermal states

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Carnot Maximum mechanical work accomplishable is a function of the gradient or discrepancy between two

k B : Boltzmann's constant

S: entropy W: number of microstates

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Carnot Maximum mechanical work accomplishable is a function of the gradient or discrepancy between two

S k lndS 0 dt

B

http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~huskey/images/carnot_cycle.jpg

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Claude Shannon

what is the total number of states available to a system?

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Claude Shannon what is the total number of states available to a system? C 

C

BLog

2

 

1

N S   

Information may only be passed from one entity to another if a sufficient energy gradient exists.

if the energy gradients available to transmit information are depleted, how do we persist into the future? My argument is that aw we feed our machines energy, we are increasing entropy and noise in Shannons equation

B: bandwidth

C: channel’s information carrying capacity N: noise S: signal

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Erwin Schrödinger

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Erwin Schr ö dinger What is Life? is a non-fiction book on science for theErwin Schr ödinger ( ISBN 0521427088 ) . Francis Crick cited What is Life? as the best theoretical description, before the actual discovery of DNA, of how genetic storage would work. In the book, Schr ö dinger introduced the idea of an "aperiodic crystal" that contained genetic information in its configuration of covalent chemical bonds. This idea both stimulated enthusiasm for discovering the genetic molecule and could be seen (in retrospect) as having been a well-reasoned theoretical prediction of what biologists should have been looking for during their search for the genetic material. " id="pdf-obj-32-6" src="pdf-obj-32-6.jpg">

What is Life? is a non-fiction book on science for the lay reader written by physicist Erwin Schrödinger (

ISBN 0521427088). Francis Crick cited What is Life? as the best theoretical description, before the actual discovery of DNA, of how genetic storage would work. In the book, Schrödinger introduced the idea of an "aperiodic crystal" that contained genetic information in its configuration of covalent chemical bonds. This idea both stimulated enthusiasm for discovering the genetic molecule and could be seen (in retrospect) as having been a well-reasoned theoretical prediction of what biologists should have been looking for during their search for the genetic material.

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: John Avery

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: John Avery "The phenomenon of life, including its origin and evolution, against the background of

"The phenomenon of life,

including its origin and

evolution, against the

background of

thermodynamics, has its

paradox of resolution in

the information content of

Avery

the Gibbs free energy

that enters the biosphere

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: John Avery "The phenomenon of life, including its origin and evolution, against the background of

from outside sources."

Information Theory

and Biology, 2003

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Hubert Yockey

Hubert Yockey

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Hubert Yockey Hubert Yockey DNA contains information that is responsible for maintaining life in its

DNA contains

information that is

responsible for

maintaining life in its

entropically unlikely

state

Information Theory,

Evolution and the

Origin of LIfe

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Antonella Vannini

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Antonella Vannini Antonella Vannini “… all physical and chemical phenomena, which are determined by causes

Antonella Vannini

“…all physical and chemical phenomena, which are determined by causes placed in the past, are governed by the principle of entropy, while all those phenomena which are attracted towards causes which are placed in the future (attractors), are governed by a principle which is symmetrical to entropy and which Fantappiè named syntropy.

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Antonella Vannini Antonella Vannini “… all physical and chemical phenomena, which are determined by causes

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: ???

Why keep a Nobel laureate around? (e.g. MRI inventor, etc)

Who cares about quarks and quasars?

Could it be that what a laureate knows will hold the key to human immortality in one of the Three Ways Out?Syntropic information from the future, aside, could the ability to model and thus predict the future be a weak form of what Vannini proposes?

What is the value of human intelligence, if not a self-fulfilling

prophecy of actual immortality?

Machines, information, and the information stored on machines

has allowed us to live longer than we already might have. Will

this trend continue?

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS

FEEDING OURSELVES w/ ENERGY AND INFORMATION

THREE WAYS OUT

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium

will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum

value at equilibrium.

Rudolf Clausius:

dS

dt

0

2 d S  0 The Big Picture of MechanoEvolution 2 dt 2 d S 
2
d
S
 0
The Big Picture of MechanoEvolution
2
dt
2
d
S
 0
2
S
dt
We know from the second law that dS/dt is
2
positive, but what about the
acceleration of
entropy?
d
S
 0
2
dt
2
d
S
 0
2
dt
living systems,
humans included
2
d
S
 0
2
living systems
dt
As we humans attempt to make
ourselves increasingly anomalous (or
entropically unlikely to exist), we do so at the
expense of accelerating the second law by sending
human prosthetics
Non-life,
machines,
more entropy into the environment than would
happen in a world where we did not exist.
nature without life
time
entropy
Life
nature with life, including humans
nature with life

OUTLINE

BRADLEY LAYTON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

MECHANOEVOLUTION: WHAT IT IS

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS

FEEDING OURSELVES w/ ENERGY AND INFORMATION

THREE WAYS OUT

Three Ways out of living at the top of the

Maintenance of Status Quo

NIH: Info and techno will kill cancer (safest bet?)

BRADLEY EDWARDS: Space Elevator (long shot?)

RUSTY SCHWEICKART: Gravity Tractor (long shot?)

• Transcendence of Biology

RAY KURZWEIL: Silicon immortality (difficult to predict)

Spirituality? Prayer will take you to immortality… You will

“live” in heaven forever.

Jerry Falwell (longest shot?)

Pope Benedict (longest shot?)

Dahli Lamma (long, but more practical?)

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Bradley Edwards

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Bradley Edwards

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Rusty Schweickart

My current primary interest is the subject of Near Earth Asteroids, or NEAs. Theyre actually part of a more general group, the NEOs or Near Earth Objects, which also includes comets.

My initial interest in NEOs was the role that they played, over geologic time, in defining the Earths environment and in shaping the evolution and development of life. The history of asteroidal and cometary impacts on the Earth, and indeed all solar system bodies, is most evident when looking at the pockmarked surface of the moon. However, it is generally understood that the cratering evident there is no different from what it would be on other inner solar system bodies, but for the mitigating effects of atmospheres, weather and erosion.

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Ray Kurzweil

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Ray Kurzweil many technologists speak of what a great time it is to be alive.

many technologists speak of

what a great time it is to be

alive. I disagree. We are on a

bubble between certain death

and possible immortality. But

what will be the quality of this

immortality? Corporeal?

Extracorporeal? Digital? -BEL

Human

transcendence of

biology

MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Ray Kurzweil many technologists speak of what a great time it is to be alive.
MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Ray Kurzweil many technologists speak of what a great time it is to be alive.
MECHANOEVOLUTIONISTS: Ray Kurzweil many technologists speak of what a great time it is to be alive.

In the meantimeWhat do we do as engineers?

syntropic engineering?

green rockets?

brain-machine interface?

personal genome sequencing?

GATTACA future?

towards full machine integration?

away from full machine integration?