You are on page 1of 43

Microtechnology and

Nanotechnology
for Semiconductor Devises
Integrated Circuits and MEMS
fabrication
By

Amna Z. Shawwa

How much is Micro and Nano?

One Micrometer = 1/1000,000

Like if you have one -meter string long divided


into million parts; each part represents one
Micrometer

One Nanometer = 1/1000,000,000

Semiconductor Technology
Applications

Micro-Electronic Integrated Circuits(Chips)

CPU
ASIC and FPGA (Field-Programmable
Analog Array )
SOC (System on Chip)

Micro-Electro-Mechanic Systems(MEMS)

!Semiconductors

Elements have the property of high


conductivity at high temperatures and
nearly zero conductivity at low
temperatures
Silicon, Germanium and gallium are The
most famous semiconductor materials
Silicon is the most dominant in the
industry

!!Why Silicon

Simply, silicon is beach sand processed in


high temperature so its cheep and
available

Easily oxidized to form electrical insulator

Has excellent mechanical properties, its


strength exceeds high-strength steel

Transistor

Transistor is a
semiconductor element
Has three terminals
A small current or voltage
applied to one terminal
controls the current
through the other two
It is the key component in
all modern electronics

?What can Transistor do

In digital circuits

Very fast electrical switch


Function as logic gate
RAM-type memory

In analog circuits

Amplify current signals


Amplify voltage signals

The First Transistor 1948

VLSI- Transistor 2004

Side-intersection for
an integrated
transistor
Todays technology
reached the
nanometer scale
90nm transistors are
used in Pentium 4

The Transistor vs. the Vacuum


Tube

Transistor

Made from
semiconductor
Small
Fast
Reliable and effective

Vacuum Tube

Similar to Light Bulb


Big and bulky
Slow
generates a lot of heat
Burns out

ENIAC - The first electronic computer


(1946)

Had 18,000 vacuum tubes


Occupied 167 sq m (1,800 sq ft)
weighed more than 30 Tans (60,000 lb)
Coasted $500,000
Consumed 200 kilowatts of electrical
power
Roughly 2,000 of the vacuum tubes
were replaced each month by a team of
six technicians.
could perform 5,000 additions, 357
multiplications or 38 divisions

The first integrated circuit

The first integrated


circuit was developed in
the 1950s by Jack Kilby
of Texas Instruments
Kilby's idea was to make
all the components and
the chip out of the same
block of semiconductor
material

Jack Kilby

His idea founded a


new industry

Has Nobel price in


physics year 2000

Intel 4004 Micro-Processor

1971

1000 Transistors

1 MHz Operation

Pentium (IV) microprocessor Intel

2002

60 Million Transistors

3.0 3.6 GHz


Operations

Moors Law
1 Billion
Transistors

K
1,000,000
100,000

Pentium IIII

10,000
1,000
i386
80286

100
10

i486

Pentium II
Pentium Pro
Pentium

8086
Source: Intel

1
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Projected

Production Requirements

The production of a chip demands care at


an atomic level.
Tiny particles like dust,a dead skin cell,or
bacteria become huge objects that are
big enough to ruin a chip
chip production takes place in a specially
designed room called the Clean Room

The Clean Room

Air circulation filters


change the air
completely up to ten
times a minute
workers wear special
suits called "bunny
suits
Furniture is built from
special materials that
don't give off particles

Chip Fabrication Process

Imaging and Masks production


Oxidization
Etching
Deposition
Cleaning
Testing
Packaging
Final Test

..Fabrication process in detail

The construction
plans for the chip are
made and tested with
a computer

Masks

From the construction


plans, masks with the
circuit patterns are
made
Making masks is the
most costly process
in the entire microchip
fabrication

The Silicon Bar

A pure silicon crystal


is grown from purred
melted silicon

The Wafer

The silicon is sawed


into thin wafers with a
diamond saw
wafers are then
polished in a number
of steps

The Oxidization

The silicon wafer is


covered with a layer
of insulating silicon
oxide
A layer of silicon
oxide is grown on the
top of the silicon
wafer

The Photoresist

A photoresist layer put


on top of the silicon
oxide
This material is
sensitive to light, like
the film in camera

Masking

UV-light is shone
through a mask and
onto the chip. On the
parts of the chip that
are hit by light, the
protective material
breaks apart

Etching

The wafer is
processed chemically
to remove the parts
of the photoresist film
that exposed to light
Chemical substances
will etch the surface
of the non covered
silicon oxide layer

Deposition

To form the active


areas, impurities
deposited in the
opened windows

Dicing

The chips on the


wafer are separated
with a diamond saw
to form individual
integrated circuits

Single die
--Chip

Wafer

Close look for chip surface

Packaging

Each chip is packed


into the protective
casing and subjected
to another series of
tests

Package Types

Micro-Electro-Mechanical
Systems (MEMS)

MEMS are fabricated from extremely thin


layers of silicon. The silicon layers can be
shaped into levers, gears, and other
mechanical devices

The MEMS components are fabricated by


etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add
new structural layers to form the mechanical
and electromechanical devices

The advantage of MEMSs


technology

MEMS are very small


more sensitive, faster, use less energy
and cheaper than larger machines
Have great mechanical properties
the strength-to-weight ratio for silicon is
higher than many other engineering
materials

MEMS Applications

Imaging systems
motion sensors
Biomedicine applications
Computers
Telecommunications

Sensors

Automobile air bag


acceleration sensors
detect the sudden
change in speed that
occurs when a
vehicle crashes

150 mm
-diameter
micromotor rotate
50,000 rpm

Biotechnology

Drug delivery devices

Microscopic needles are


capable of providing
pathways for molecular
transport across the skin
by opening micron-scale
holes in the skin, they
avoid contacting nerves
painless and bloodless

Image and Communications

Micromirrors

fiber-optic
communication cables
millions of movable
micromirrors replaces a
conventional video
cathode-ray tube to
project digital video
images

Thanks!
??Any question