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Thermal Power Plant

Industrial Training
Presentation By:-

EE, 4th year

2.Overview of Mejia Thermal Power Plant
3.Power plant layout
4.Main and Auxiliary Equipment
5.Stepwise operation

A Thermal Power Plant converts the heat energy of coal into
electrical energy. Coal is burnt in a boiler which converts water
into steam. The expansion of steam in turbine produces
mechanical power which drives the alternator coupled to the
turbine.Thermal Power Plants contribute maximum to the
generation of Power for any country . Thermal Power Plants
constitute 75.43% of the total installed captive and non-captive
power generation in India . In thermal generating stations coal,
oil, natural gas etc. are employed as primary sources of energy.

Overview of MTPS
Damodar Valley Corporation was established on 7th July 1948.
The MTPS under the DVC is the second largest thermal plant in West Bengal.
It has the capacity of

2340 MW with 4 units

each & 2 units of 500 MW each.

of 210 MW each, 2 units of 250 MW

With the introduction of another two units of 500 MW that is in construction it will be the

largest in West Bengal.

Mejia Thermal Power Station is located in the outskirts of Raniganj in Bankura District.
The total power plant campus area is

surrounded by boundary walls and is basically divided into two major parts, first the Power
Plant area itself and the second is the Colony area for the residence and other facilities for
MTPSs employees.

Diagram of a typical coal-fi red thermal

power station

General Layout of Thermal Power Station

General Layout of Thermal Power Station

Major electrical components of Power


Main and Auxiliary Eq u i p m e n t s

1. Coal handling plant
2. Pulverizing plant
3. Draft fans
4. Boiler
5. Ash handling plant
6. Turbine
7. Condenser
8. Cooling towers and ponds
9. Feed water heater
10. Economiser
11. Superheater and Reheater
12. Air preheater

Coal handling plant

The function of coal handling plant is automatic feeding of coal to the boiler furnace.
A thermal power plant burns enormous amounts of coal.
A 200MW plant may require around 2000 tons of coal daily

Pulverising plant
In modern thermal power plant , coal
is pulverised i.e. ground to dust like
size and carried to the furnace in a
stream of hot air. Pulverising is a
means of exposing a large surface
area to the action of oxygen and
consequently helping combustion.
Pulverising mills are further classified
1. Contact mill
2. Ball mill


The percentage of ash in coal is 5% in
good quality coal & about 40% in poor quality
Power plants generally use poor quality of
coal , thus amount of ash produced by it is
quite large .
A modern 1000MW plant produces about
4800 tons of ash daily.
The stations use some conveyor
arrangement to carry ash to dump sites .

Boiler is an enclosed vessel in which

water is heated and circulated until

the water is turned in to steam at the
required pressure.
Coal is burned inside the combustion
chamber of boiler. The products of
combustion are nothing but gases.
These gases which are at high
temperature vaporize the water
inside the boiler to steam.
Boilers are classified as:
1. Fire tube boilers
2. Water tube boilers
3. Superheater
4. Reheater

Boiler Operation

The steam produced in the boiler goes

to the steam drum and is then piped

through the primary, platen and final
super-heaters where it reaches the outlet
temperature of 560C and 160 ksc
At this point in the process they have
now turned the water into a very
powerful source of energy
This rotates the turbine to which
generator is on the other end
From rotating generator electricity is


Some of the heat of

superheated steam is used
to rotate the turbine where
it loses some of its energy.
The steam after reheating is
used to rotate the second
steam turbine where the
mechanical energy is used
to run the alternator, which
is coupled to turbine , there

Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to condenser. Condenser

refers here to the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface
condenser) installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in Thermal
power stations of utility companies.
The purpose is to condense the outlet (or exhaust) steam from
steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to get the
condensed steam in the form of pure water, otherwise known as
condensate, back to steam generator or (boiler) as boiler feed water.
Condensers are classified as:
i)Jet condensers or contact condensers,
ii)Surface condensers.

Primary Air Fan

Air to blow the coal from the mill to the

boiler, called the primary air, is supplied by

a large fan driven by a variable speed motor
When mixed with a stream of air the

powdered coal behaves more like a gas than

a solid
Primary air does two jobs heating the coal

powder and secondly lifting it into the

furnace through pipelines

Forced Draught (FD) Fan

Each unit shall have two forced

draught fans
The fans draw warm air from the top
of the boiler house through large air
heaters becoming the primary and
secondary air used for the boiler
combustion process
The air heater warms the incoming
air by transferring heat energy from
the outgoing flue gases

Air Pre-Heater (APH)

The air heaters use the remaining heat

energy in the flue gas to heat up the

combustion air for the boiler
Efficiency is increased by using this
heat that would otherwise go up the
chimney. The air temperature leaving
the air heaters is at 300C
The air heaters use the remaining heat
energy and efficiency is increased by
using this heat that would otherwise
go up the chimney

Induced Draught (ID) Fan

Two induced draught fans draw

gases out of the boiler

The gas has already passed through
the air heaters and precipitators
The chimney is 275 meters' high and 50,000
before it has reached these fans
tonnes of reinforced concrete were used to
The heat from the flue gases or
make it
smoke is used in the air heaters to
It consists of flues each of which serve
typically two or three boilers (two units)
heat up the primary and secondary

Electro-Static Precipitator
Each boiler has 4 passes with 7 fields each

containing high voltage electrodes

These attract the dust or ash from the flue gases
At regular intervals the electrodes are rapped with
motor-driven hammers and the PFA falls into
hoppers below
In a year 1,000 MW station may generate 1.5
million ton of ash
This is one of the ways to clean up the flue gases or
smoke sent up the chimney
Secondly this ash is used by construction industry
for use in building materials (bricks !!, Cement

Cooling Towers
The condensate (water) formed in the

condenser after condensation is

initially at high temperature. This hot
water is passed to cooling towers.
It is a tower- or building-like device in
which atmospheric air (the heat
receiver) circulates in direct or indirect
contact with warmer water (the heat
source) and the water is thereby
Types Of Cooling Tower1. Wet cooling tower
2. Dry cooling tower

Flue gases coming out of the boiler

carry lot of heat. Function of

economizer is to recover some of the
heat from the heat carried away in the
flue gases up the chimney and utilize
for heating the feed water to the boiler.
It is placed in the passage of flue gases
in between the exit from the boiler and
the entry to the chimney.
The use of economizer results in saving
in coal consumption, increase in
steaming rate and high boiler
efficiency but needs extra investment
and increase in maintenance costs and
floor area required for the plant.

Steam Turbine
Asteamturbineis a device that

extractsthermal energyfrom
pressurizedsteamand uses it to
domechanical workon a rotating
output shaft.
The steam turbine is a form
ofheat enginethat derives much
of its improvement in
thermodynamic efficiencyfrom
the use of multiple stages in the
expansion of the steam, which
results in a closer approach to
the ideal reversible expansion

An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts

mechanical energy to alternating current electrical energy.

Most alternators use a rotating magnetic field. Different
geometries - such as a linear alternator for use with sterling
engines - are also occasionally used. In principle, any AC
generator can be called an alternator, but usually the word
refers to small rotating machines driven by automotive and
other internal combustion engines.

It is a device that transfers electric energy

from one alternating-current circuit to one

or more other circuits, either increasing
(stepping up) or reducing (stepping down)
the voltage.
Transformers act through electromagnetic

induction; current in the primary coil

induces current in the secondary coil. The
secondary voltage is calculated by
multiplying the primary voltage by the
ratio of the number of turns in the
secondary coil to that in the primary.



Placed where switching operation of power distribution is performed.

Air insulated switch yard of 220KV-400KV are used.

Main Components of Switch Yard:

Circuit breaker


Lightening arrester

Bus bar

Current Transformer

Potential Transformer

These are used for automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions .


ABB Limited

Type of Circuit Breaker


Rated Voltage

245 KV

Rated Current
Under Site Condition of 40 0C

4000 A

Under Site Condition of 50 0C

2000 A

Rated Frequency

50 Hz

These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load condition for safety,

isolation and maintenance.

Rated current for site conditions

2000 A

Rated Voltage

245 KV

Rated Frequency

50 Hz

Operating time of Isolator

Less than 12 sec.

These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to


Crompton Greaves Ltd, Nasik

Model No.

ZLA X 25 C

Ref. Standard

IEC 99 4. 1991

Rated Frequency

50 Hz

Max. Leakage Current

5 mA

The conductors to which several incoming and outgoing

lines are connected.

They are made up of Cu & Al,
The incoming and outgoing cables are provided for

metering purpose.

These are used to step-down currents for measurement, control &

Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current

and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of

For high voltage CVT (capacitive voltage transformer) is used

instead of VT and capacitors play divider role.

We can also use these capacitors for PLC system.

Stepwise Operation of Thermal Power Plant

1) First the pulverized coal is burnt into the furnace of boiler.
2) High pressure steam is produced in the boiler.
3) This steam is then passed through the super heater, where it further heated up.
4) This supper heated steam is then entered into a turbine at high speed.
5) In turbine this steam force rotates the turbine blades that means here in the
turbine the stored potential energy of the high pressured steam is converted into
mechanical energy.
6) After rotating the turbine blades, the steam has lost its high pressure, passes
out of turbine blades and enters into a condenser.
7) in the condenser the cold water is circulated with help of pump which
condenses the low pressure wet steam.
8) This condensed water is then further supplied to low pressure water heater
where the low pressure steam increases the temperature of this feed water; it is
then again heated in a high pressure heater where the high pressure of steam is
used for heating.
9) The turbine in thermal power station acts as a prime mover of the alternator.

Efficiency of Thermal Power Station or

The overall efficiency of a thermal power station or plant varies from
20% to 26% and it depends upon plant capacity.

Thank you