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Identifying and Understanding

Week 3

Learning Objectives
When you complete this
chapter you should be able to
1. How customers make decisions
about what retailer to patronize,
what channel to use, and what
merchandise to buy .
2. What social and personal factors
affect customer purchase

Learning Objectives
When you complete this
chapter you should be able to
3. How retailers can get customers
to visit their stores more
frequently and buy more
merchandise during each visit
4. Why and how retailers group
customers into market segments

Stages in the Buying


Types of Needs
Utilitarian Needs satisfied
when purchases accomplish a
specific task. Shopping needs
to be easy, and effortless like
Sams or a grocery store.
Hedonic needs satisfied
when purchases accomplish a
need for entertainment,
emotional, and recreational
experience as in department
stores or specialty stores.

Hedonic Needs that Retailers can

Ex: Background music,
visual displays, scents

Satisfy need for power

and status
Ex: Canyon Ranch
upscale health resorts

Treasure hunting for

Conflicting Needs
Ex: Evas hedonic needs (wearing a
DKNY suit to enhance self-image)
conflict with her budget, and her
utilitarian need to get a job.
Customers make trade-offs between
their conflicting needs

Information Search
Amount of Information Search Depends on the
value from searching versus the cost of searching
Factors Affecting Amount of Information Search
Product Characteristics

Customer Characteristics
Past experience
Perceived risk
Time pressure

Market Characteristics
Number of alternative brands

Sources of Information
Past experiences

Consumer reports
Word of mouth

Digital Vision / Getty Images

Dynamic Graphics/Picture Quest

How Can Retailers Limit

the Information Search?

Information from sales associates

Provide an assortment of services
Provide good assortments
Everyday low pricing


Internet, Information Search,

and Price Competition
Profound impact on consumers ability to
gather external information
Number of stores visited is no longer
limited by physical distance
Information about the quality and
performance at a low search cost
Retailers using an Internet channel can
differentiate their offerings by providing
better services and information

Evaluation of Alternatives
Multiattribute attitude model:
Customers see a retailer, product, or
service as a collection of attributes or
Predict a customers evaluation of a
retailer, product, or service based on
Its performance on relevant attributes
the importance of those attributes to the

Information about
Retailers Selling Groceries

Information Used
in Evaluating Retailers

Information Needed to
Use Multi-Attribute Model
Alternative Consumer Considering
Characteristic/Benefits Sought in
Making Store and Merchandise
Ratings of Alternative Performance
on Criteria
Importance of Criteria to Consumer

Getting into the

Consideration Set
Consideration set: the
set of alternatives the
customer evaluates when
making a selection
Retailers develop programs
influencing top-of-mind
Get exposure on search
engines like Google
Try to be the top of the page
More stores in the same area
(e.g., Starbucks)

Methods for increasing the chance of store

visit after getting into the consideration set

Increase Performance Beliefs of Your

Decrease Performance Beliefs About
Increase Importance Weight of
Attributes on which You Have an
Add a New Benefit on which You

Purchasing Merchandise or Services

Customers do not always purchase a brand with
the highest overall evaluation.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer

The high-rated item may not

be available in the store.
How can a retailer increase
the chances that customers
will convert their
merchandise evaluations into

Postpurchase Evaluation
A post-consumption evaluation of how
well a store or product meets or exceeds
customer expectations

Becomes part of the customers

internal information that affects
future store and product decisions
Builds store and brand loyalty

Types of Buying Decisions

Extended Problem Solving
High financial or Social Risk

Limited Problem Solving

Some Prior Buying Experience

Habitual Decision Making

Store Brand, Loyalty

Extended Problem Solving

Consumers devote time and effort analyzing
Financial risks purchasing
expensive products or
Physical risks purchases
that will affect consumers
health and safety
Social risks consumers
will believe product will
affect how others view

What do Retailers Need to do for Customers

Engaged in Extended Problem Solving

Provide a Lot of Information

Use Salespeople rather than advertising
with customers

Reduce the Risks

Offer Guarantees
Return Privileges

Limited Problem Solving

Purchase decisions process involving
and time
in effort
when they have had prior
experience with products or
Customers rely more upon
personal knowledge
Majority of customer decisions
involve limited problem

(c) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock

What do Retailers Need to do for Customers

Engaged in Limited Problem Solving?

It depends
If the Customer Is Coming to You, Provide a
Positive Experience and Create Loyalty
Make Sure Customer is Satisfied
Provide Good Service, Assortments, value
Offer Rewards to Convert to Loyal Customer
If the Customer Goes to Your Competitors Store,
Change Behavior
Offer More Convenient Locations, Better
Service and Assortments

Encouraging Impulse Buying

Impulse buying: one common type
of limited problem solving
Influence by using prominent pointof- purchase (POP) or point-of-sale

PhotoLink/Getty Images

Have Salespeople Suggest Add-ons

Have Complementary Merchandise
Displayed Near Product of Interest
Use Signage in Aisle or Special Displays
Put Merchandise Where Customers Are

Habitual Problem Solving

Purchase decision process involving little or
no conscious effort

For purchases that arent

important to the consumer
For merchandise consumers
have purchased in the past
For consumers loyal to brands
or a store

Customer Loyalty
Brand Loyalty

Committed to a Specific Brand

Reluctant to Switch to a Different Brand
May Switch Retailers to Buy Brand
Store Loyalty

Committed to a Specific Retailer

Reluctant to Switch Retailers

What do Retailers Need to do for Customers

Engage in Habitual Decision Making

It depends
If the customer habitually comes to you,
reinforce behavior
Make sure merchandise in stock
Provide good service
Offer rewards to loyal customer

If the customer goes to your competitors

store, break the habit
Offer special promotions

Social Factors
Influencing the Buying Decision

Family Influences Buying

Purchases are for entire
family to use
Whole family participates in
decision making process
Retailers work to satisfy
needs of all family members

Reference Groups
A reference group is one or more
people whom a person uses as a
basis of comparison for beliefs,
feelings and behaviors.
Reference groups affect buying
decisions by:
Offering information
Providing rewards for specific
purchasing behaviors
Enhancing a consumers selfimage

Reference Groups
Eva. looks to
Soccer player Mia Hamm and tennis player Maria
Sharapova for the selection of athletic wear
Jessica Simpson for casual fashion advice

Store advocates:
Customers that like a store so much that they
actively share their positive experiences with
friends and family
Victoria Secret
Alpha Moms

Culture is the meaning,
beliefs, morals and
values shared by most
members of a society
Western culture:
Eastern culture:
Subcultures are
distinctive groups of
people within a culture

Criteria for Evaluating Market

Retailer should know what to do to satisfy needs for the customers

Criteria for Evaluating Market


Market segment must be larger enough or its buying power signific


Approaches for Segmenting


Approaches for Segmenting

Geographic segmentation groups
customers according to where they
Demographic segmentation groups
consumers on the basis of easily
measured, objective characteristics
such as age, gender, income, and

Approaches for Segmenting Markets

Geodemographic segmentation uses
both geographic and demographic
characteristics to classify consumers.
Lifestyle, or psychographics , refers to
how people live, how they spend their
time and money, what activities they
pursue, and their attitudes and opinions
about the world in which they live.

Approaches for Segmenting Markets

Buying situations can influence
customers with the same
demographics or lifestyle.
Benefit segmentation groups
customers seeking similar benefits.

Discussions and Problems

1. Does the customer buying process end
when a customer buys some merchandise?
Explain your answer.
2. Describe how retailers, such as hotels,
provide information to potential customers
to answer questions about rates, services
offered, and other amenities. How is this
similar to and different from the information
provided by product manufacturers?

Discussions and Problems

3. Considering the steps in the consumer
buying process, describe how you (and
your family) used this process to select your
college or university. How many schools did
you consider? How much time did you
invest in this purchase decision? When you
were deciding on which college to attend,
what objective and subjective criteria did
you use in the alternative evaluation portion
of the consumer buying process?

Discussions and Problems

4. A family-owned used-book store across the
street from a major university campus
wants to identify the various segments in its
market. What approaches might the store
owner use to segment its market? List two
potential target market segments based on
this segmentation approach. Then contrast
the retail mix that would be most
appropriate for the two potential target

Discussions and Problems

5. Think of a recent purchase that you
made, and describe how social
environmental factors, including
reference group, family, and culture,
influenced your buying decision.
How are retailers using social media
to impact your buying decisions?