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A collection of computers and devices connected by

communications channels that facilitates communications
among users and allows users to share resources with other
I. Facilitate communication
(a) E-mail

(b) Instant Messaging IV. Share software's

(c) Chat rooms (a) Operating System
(d) Video conference (b) Games

II. Share hardware's

(a) Printer sharing

(b) Camera

III. Share files data and

(a) File sharing

(b) FTP Server's


One way to categorize the different types of computer network

designs is by their scope or scale.

LAN and WAN were the original categories of area networks,

while the others have gradually emerged over many years of
technology evolution.

Note that these network types are a separate concept from

network topologies such as bus, ring and star.
Common examples of area network types are:

 LAN : Local Area Network

 WLAN : Wireless Local Area Network
 WAN : Wide Area Network
 MAN : Metropolitan Area Network
 SAN : Storage Area Network, System Area Network,
Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network
 CAN : Campus Area Network, Controller Area Network,
or sometimes Cluster Area Network
 PAN : Personal Area Network

 DAN : Desk Area Network

All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to
interconnect network nodes, such as:
 Network Interface Cards (NICs)

 Bridges

 Hubs

 Switches

 Routers

A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface

card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow
computers to communicate over a computer network which
provides physical access to a networking medium and often
provides a low-level addressing system through the use of
MAC (Media Access Control) addresses.

A repeater is an electronic device

that receives a signal, cleans it
from the unnecessary noise,
regenerates it and retransmits it
at a higher power level, or to the
other side of an obstruction, so
that the signal can cover longer
distances without degradation. In
most twisted pair Ethernet
configurations, repeaters are
required for cable which runs
longer than 100 meters.

A network hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives

at one port, it is copied unmodified to all ports of the hub
for transmission. The destination address in the frame is not
changed to a broadcast address.

A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the

data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do send
broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast
was received. However, bridges do not promiscuously copy
traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses
are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge

associates a port and an address,

it will send traffic for that address
to that port only.
A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer
2 datagrams (chunk of data communication) between
ports (connected cables) based on the MAC addresses in the
packets. This is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the
frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than
all ports connected.

Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis

of MAC addresses. A switch normally has numerous ports,
facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading
additional switches.

The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass

devices including routers and bridges

A router is a networking device

that forwards packets between
networks using information in
protocol headers and forwarding
tables to determine the best
next router for each packet.

A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a

group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in
an office building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for
sharing resources like files, printers, games or other
applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and
to the Internet or other WAN.

The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area

networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer
rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased
telecommunication lines.A LAN can be either wired or wireless.

Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each

node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with
which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data
and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many
users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as
well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with
each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions.
The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from

The geometric arrangement of devices on the network. For

example, devices can be arranged in a ring or in a
straight line.\


The rules and encoding specifications for sending data. The

protocols also determine whether the network uses a
peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.


Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables,

or fiber optic cables. Some networks do without
connecting media altogether, communicating instead via
A Wide Area Network is a computer network that spans a
relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of
two or more local-area networks (LANs).

Computers connected to a wide-area network are often

connected through public networks, such as the telephone
system. They can also be connected through leased lines or
WANs cover cities, countries, continents and the whole world.

A WAN is formed by linking LANs together. For example,

several major LANs in a city can connect together forming a

When networks connect to form a bigger network (a bigger

WAN), the resulting network is called an internetwork, which is
generically abbreviated to ‘an internet’. Now when all WANs in
the world connect forming a global internet, we call it The
Internet, which everyone knows! That’s why the Internet is
always written with a capital I. It is the biggest WAN we have.
The Internet is a global network connecting millions of
computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges
of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are
centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design.
Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its
operators can choose which Internet services to use and which
local services to make available to the global Internet
community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works
exceedingly well.

There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online

services, such as America Online, offer access to some
Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a
commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP) such as TM,
Celcom, Digi, Jaring, P1 and many more.

The Internet has no centralized governance in either

technological implementation or policies for access and usage;
each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the
overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in
the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the
Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer
organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and
standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an
activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-
profit organization of loosely-affiliated international
participants that anyone may associate with by contributing
technical expertise.
An intranet is a private network that is contained within an
enterprise. It may consist of many interlinked local area
networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network.
Typically, an intranet includes connections through one or more
gateway computers to the outside Internet. The main purpose of
an intranet is to share company information and computing
resources among employees. An intranet can also be used to
facilitate working in groups and for teleconferences.

An intranet uses TCP/IP, HTTP, and other Internet protocols and

in general looks like a private version of the Internet. With
tunneling, companies can send private messages through the
public network, using the public network with special
encryption/decryption and other security safeguards to connect
one part of their intranet to another.
It is accessible only by the organization's members,
employees, or others with authorization. An intranet's Web
sites look and act just like any other Web sites, but the firewall
surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.

Typically, larger enterprises allow users within their intranet to

access the public Internet through firewall servers that have
directions so that company security
the ability to screen messages in both
is maintained. When part of an
intranet is made accessible to
customers, partners, suppliers, or
others outside the company, that
part becomes part of an extranet.
Network Topology
Type of Network Topology
• Bus Network Topology
• Ring Network Topology
• Star Network Topology
• Mesh Network Topology
• Tree Network Topology
Bus Network Topology
• use a common backbone to
connect all devices.
• A single cable, the backbone
functions as a shared
communication medium that
devices attach or tap into with
an interface connector.
• A device wanting to
communicate with another
device on the network sends a
broadcast message onto the
wire that all other devices see,
but only the intended recipient
actually accepts and processes
the message.
• If one computer fails in the network the others
are still not affected and they continue to work
• Very simple and easy to set up
• Use the least amount of cable
• Well-suited for temporary or small networks not
requiring high speeds (quick setup)
• Easy identification of cable faults
• Cost effective.
• Limited cable length and number of stations.
• If there is a problem with the cable, the entire
network breaks down.
• Maintenance costs may be higher in the long
• Performance degrades as additional computers
are added or on heavy traffic (shared bandwidth)
• Slower data transfer rate than other topologies
Ring Network Topology
• every device has exactly
two neighbors for
communication purposes.
• All messages travel
through a ring in the same
direction (either "clockwise"
or "counterclockwise").
• A failure in any cable or
device breaks the loop and
can take down the entire
• Very orderly network where every device
has access to the token and the
opportunity to transmit
• Performs better than a star topology under
heavy network load
• Can create much larger network using
Token Ring
• Does not require network server to
manage the connectivity between the
• One malfunctioning workstation
• Moves, adds and changes of devices can
affect the network
• Network adapter cards and MAU's are
much more expensive than Ethernet cards
and hubs
• Much slower than an Ethernet network
under normal load
Star Network Topology
• Many home networks
use the star topology.
• A star network features
a central connection
point called a "hub" that
may be a hub, switch or
• Devices typically
connect to the hub with
Unshielded Twisted Pair
(UTP) Ethernet.
• Better performance: The star topology
prevents the passing of data packets through an
excessive number of nodes
• Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently
isolated by the link that connects it to the hub.
• Benefits from centralization: As the central
hub is the bottleneck, increasing its capacity, or
connecting additional devices to it, increases the
size of the network very easily.
Advantages (cont)
• Simplicity: This topology is easy to
understand, establish, and navigate.
• Easy to install and wire.
• Easy to detect faults and to remove parts
• No disruptions to the network when
connecting or removing devices.
• High dependence of the system on the
functioning of the central hub
• The failure of the central hub renders the
network inoperable, immediately isolating
all nodes.
• The performance and scalability of the
network also depend on the capabilities of
the hub
• Wiring up of the system can be very
complex and high costing.
Mesh Network Topology
• Mesh topologies
involve the concept of
• Messages sent on a
mesh network can
take any of several
possible paths from
source to destination.
• Some WANs, most
notably the Internet,
employ mesh routing.
• The arrangement of the network nodes is
such that it is possible to transmit data
from one node to many other nodes at the
same time
• The arrangement wherein every network
node is connected to every other node of
the network, many of the connections
serve no major purpose. This leads to the
redundancy of many of the network
Tree Network Topology

• Integrate multiple star topologies together onto a

• In its simplest form, only hub devices connect
directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as
the "root" of a tree of devices.
• This bus/star hybrid approach supports future
expandability of the network much better than a
bus or a star alone.
• Tree Topology is supported by many
network vendors ad even hardware
• A point to point connection is possible with
Tree Networks.
• All the computers have access to the
larger and their immediate networks.
• Best topology for branched out networks.
• In a Network Topology the length of the
network depends on the type of cable that
is being used.
• The Tree Topology network is entirely
dependant on the trunk which is the main
backbone of the network. If that has to fail
then the entire network would fail.
• Since the Tree Topology network is big it
is difficult to configure and can get
complicated after a certain point.
Network Hardware
Cable type & function
Twisted-Pair Cable
• One of the more widely
used transmission
media for network
cabling and telephone
• Consists of one or
more twisted-pair wires
bundled together.
Twisted-Pair Cable
• Each twisted-pair wire consists of two
separate insulated copper wires that are
twisted together
• The wire are twisted together to reduc
• Noise is an electrical disturbance that can
degrade communications.
Coaxial Cable
• Often referred to as
coax, consists of a
single copper wire
surrounded by at least
three layer: (1) an
insulating material, (2)
a woven or braided
metal, (3) a plastic
outer coating.
Coaxial Cable
• Cable television network wiring often uses
coaxial cable because it can be cabled
over longer distances than twisted-pair
• Most of today’s computer networks, do not
use coaxial cable because other
transmission media such as fiber-optic
cable transmit signals at faster rates.
Fiber-Optic Cable
• The core of a fiber-optic
cable consists of dozens
or hundreds of thin
strands of glass or
plastic that use light to
transmit signals.
• Inside the fiber-optic
cable, an insulating
glass cladding and a
protective coating
surround each optical
Fiber-Optic Cable - Advantages
• Capability of carrying significantly more
signals than wire cable
• Faster data transmission
• Less susceptible to noise
• Better security for signal
• Smaller size
Fiber-Optic Cable - Disadvantages
• Expensive
• Difficult to install and modify
Socket Type & Function
• RJ45 is name of connector types used for
Ethernet connections on computers and
other Ethernet networking devices like
routers and switches and also modems
and other devices which support Ethernet
• RJ45 is the standard for the plug that you
use for connecting cat5 cable to a
network. It's an 8 connector plug that
looks like a larger version of a phone plug.
• The BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman)
connector is a very common type of RF
connector used for terminating coaxial cable.
• used for RF signal connections, for analog
and serial digital interface video signals,
amateur radio antenna connections, aviation
electronics (avionics) and many other types
of electronic test equipment.
ST Connector
• The ST (Straight Tip) connector is a fiber optic
connector which uses a plug and socket which is
locked in place with a half-twist bayonet lock.
• They are amongst the most frequently used fiber
optic connectors in networking applications
• They are used both for short distance applications
and long distance coordination.
• They can effortlessly be attached and detached
because of their flexible design.
SC Connector
• The SC connector is a fiber optic connector with
a push-pull latching mechanism which provides
quick insertion and removal while also ensuring
a positive connection.
• SC connector has a benefit in keyed duplex
capability to support send/receive channels
• These connectors are commonly used for most
modern network applications. The SC is a snap-
in connector that is extensively used in single-
mode systems for its remarkable efficiency.
• They are inexpensive, trouble-free, and
robust. SC connectors give precise
positioning via their ceramic ferrules
• The SC connector has been standardized
as FOCIS 3 (Fiber Optic Connector
Intermateability Standards) in EIA/TIA-
Network Devices
• Computer
network devices
including routers,
switches, hubs,
LAN cards,
hardware firewall,
terminals and
• Used to connect two logically
and physically different
networks, two LANs, two
WANs and a LAN with WAN
• The main function of the router
is to sorting and the distribution
of the data packets to their
destinations based on their IP
• Cisco routers are widely used
in the world.
• A switch is an intelligent device that
maps the IP address with the MAC
address of the LAN card
• Unlike the hubs, a switch does not
broadcast the data to all the
computers, it sends the data
packets only to the destined
• In an Ethernet network, computers
are directly connected with the
switch via twisted pair cables.
• In a network, switches use the three
methods to transmit the data i.e.
store and forward, cut through and
fragment free.
• The central connecting device in
a computer network
• There are two types of a hub i.e.
active hub and passive hub.
• Every computer is directly
connected with the hub.
• When data packets arrives at
hub, it broadcast them to all the
LAN cards in a network and the
destined recipient picks them and
all other computers discard the
data packets.
• Hub has five, eight, sixteen and
more ports and one port is known
as uplink port, which is used to
connect with the next hub.
• A modem is a
communication device that
is used to provide the
connectivity with the
• Modem works in two ways
i.e. modulation and
• It coverts the digital data
into the analog and analog
to digital
LAN Cards
• LAN cards or network
adapters are the building
blocks of a computer network
• No computer can
communicate without a
properly installed and
configured LAN card
• Every LAN card is provided
with a unique IP address,
subnet mask, gateway and
DNS (if applicable).
LAN Cards
• An UTP/STP cable connects a computer
with the hub or switch. Both ends of the
cable have the RJ-45 connectors one is
inserted into the LAN card and one in the
• LAN cards are inserted into the expansion
slots inside the computer.
• Different LAN cards support different
speed from 10/100 to 10/1000.