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# Introduction

to
Statistics
Dr. P Murphy

Why study Statistics?
We like to think that we have
control over our lives.
But in reality there are many
things that are outside our
control.
Everyday we are confronted
by our own ignorance.
According to Albert Einstein:
“God does not play dice.”
But we all should know
better than Prof. Einstein.
The world is governed by
Quantum Mechanics where
Probability reigns supreme.

Consider a day in the
life of an average
UCD student.
You wake up in the morning
and the sunlight hits your
eyes. Then suddenly without
warning the world becomes
an uncertain place.
How long will you have to
wait for the Number 10 Bus
this morning?
When it arrives will it be
full?
Will it be out of service?
Will it be raining while you
wait?

Probability
is the
Science of Uncertainty.
It is used by Physicists to
predict the behaviour of
elementary particles.
It is used by engineers to
build computers.
It is used by economists to
predict the behaviour of the
economy.
It is used by stockbrokers
to make money on the
stockmarket.
It is used by psychologists
to determine if you should

Statistics?
Statistics is the Science of
Data.
The Statistics you have
seen before has been
probably been Descriptive
Statistics.
And Descriptive Statistics
made you feel like this ….

What is Inferential Statistics? It is a discipline that allows us to estimate unknown quantities by making some elementary measurements. Using these estimates we can then make Predictions and Forecast the Future  .

Chapter 1 Probability .

Example: What are the chances that you get a HEAD when you toss a coin? .Consider a Real Problem Can you make money playing the Lottery? Let us calculate chances of winning. These rules are mainly just ways of formalising basic common sense . To do this we need to learn some basic rules about probability.

5. .1. 2. same. 4. better      Set of all outcomes Sample Space.  ExamplesToss a coin: head or tail   Roll a die: 1. 3. 6 Take medicine: worse.1 Experiments An Experiment leads to a single outcome which cannot be predicted with certainty.

1. . 1=certain).   Long run relative frequency interpretation.2 Probability The Probability of an outcome is a number between 0 and 1 that measures the likelihood that the outcome will occur when the experiment is performed. (0=impossible. Probabilities of all sample points must sum to 1.

1. The probability of an event A is calculated by summing the probabilities of the outcomes in the sample space for A.3 Events An event is a specific collection of sample points.   .

Sum the sample point probabilities to get the event probability. .4 Steps for calculating Probailities Define the experiment. Determine the collection of sample points contained in the event of interest. Assign probabilities to the sample points. List the sample points.1.

What is the probability of the sum of the two dice showing 7? .Example: THE GAME Of CRAPS In Craps one rolls two fair dice.

5) (5.1) .1) (2.3) (2.5) (4.1) (6.4) (4.6) (1.4) (2.1) (1.6) (2.4) (5.5) (2.(1.4) (1.6) (4.1) (5.2) (6.6) (2.2) (6.3) (3.6) (3.3) (6.2) (1.5) (3.2) (4.6) (6.4) (4.6) (5.5) (6.3) (5.1) (3.2) (2.5) (1.2) (3.2) (5.4) (3.1) (4.3) (4.5) (3.3) (1.3) (5.4) (6.

5 Equally likely outcomes So the Probability of 7 when rolling two dice is 1/6 This example illustrates the following rule: In a Sample Space S of equally likely outcomes. The probability of the event A is given by P(A) = #A / #S That is the number of outcomes in A divided by the total number of events in S.1. .

it consists of all sample points that belong to A or B or both.  AC: The Complement of A is the event that A does not occur AB : The Union of two events A and B is the event that occurs if either A or B or both occur.   AB: The Intersection of .6 Sets A compound event is a composition of two or more other events.1.

. P(AB)=0 for Mutually Exclusive Events.7 Basic Probability Rules P(Ac)=1-P(A) P(AB)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AB) Mutually Exclusive Events are events which cannot occur at the same time.1.

8 Conditional Probability P(A | B) ~ Probability of A occuring given that B has occurred.1. P(A | B) = P(AB) / P(B) Multiplicative Rule: P(AB) = P(A|B)P(B) = P(B|A)P(A) .

1.9 Independent Events A and B are independent events if the occurrence of one event does not affect the probability of the othe event. If A and B are independent then P(A|B)=P(A) P(B|A)=P(B) P(AB)=P(A)P(B) .

Chapter 1 Probability EXAMPLES .

Probability as a matter of life and death .

How should you react? . You are not feeling well and you go to hospital where your Physician tests you. He says you are positive for AIDS and tells you that you have 18 months to live.Positive Test for Disease 1 in every 10000 people in Ireland suffer from AIDS There is a test for HIV/AIDS which is 95% accurate.

0001  P(T|D)=0.95  P(D|T)=?  .Positive Test for Disease Let D be the event that you have AIDS  Let T be the event that you test positive for AIDS  P(D)=0.

0001)  (0.05)(0.Positive Test for Disease P ( D T ) P( D | T )  P (T ) P (T | D ) P ( D )  C P ({T  D} {T  D}) P (T | D ) P ( D )  P (T  D )  P (T  D C ) P(T | D ) P ( D )  C C P (T | D ) P ( D )  P (T | D ) P( D ) (0.001897 .95)(0.95)(0.0001)  (0.9999)  0.

Chapter 1 Examples Example 1. .C} P(A) = ½ P(B) = 1/3 P(C) = 1/6 What is P({A.B.1 S={A.C})? List all events Q such that P(Q) = ½.B})? What is P({A.B.

On a given day what is the probability that on a given day that lecturer will either arrive late or leave early? . leaves early 20% of the time and both arrives late AND leaves early 5% of the time.2 Suppose that a lecturer arrives late to class 10% of the time.Chapter 1 Examples Example 1.

All 5 cards are spades 3.Chapter 1 Examples Example 1. A Full House (3 same. All four aces and the king of spades 2.3 Suppose you are dealt 5 cards from a deck of 52 playing cards. Find the probability of the following events 1. 2 same) . All 5 cards are different 4.

Chapter 1 Examples Example 1.4 The Birthday Problem Suppose there are N people in a room. How large should N be so that there is a more than 50% chance that at least two people in the room have the same birthday? .

19 14 0.44 22 0.22 15 0.12 11 0.00 2 0.17 13 0.83 37 0.71 31 0.04 7 0.09 10 0.60 27 0.85 38 0.51 24 0.28 17 0.80 35 0.97 51 0.94 46 0.97 50 0.14 12 0.96 49 0.91 43 0.81 36 0.48 23 0.89 41 0.75 33 0.97 52 0.99 57 0.99 56 0.65 29 0.77 34 0.99 .86 39 0.98 54 0.88 40 0.06 8 0.63 28 0.92 44 0.41 21 0.95 48 0.95 47 0.Number in Room Prob at least 2 have same birthday 1 0.98 53 0.02 5 0.73 32 0.03 6 0.38 20 0.35 19 0.93 45 0.00 3 0.68 30 0.57 26 0.07 9 0.98 55 0.90 42 0.25 16 0.54 25 0.32 18 0.01 4 0.

4 Children are born equally likely as Boys or Girls My brother has two children (not twins) One of his children is a boy named Luke What is the probability that his other child is a girl? .Chapter 1 Examples Example 1.

Example 1. and shows you a goat  He then asks if you want to stick with your original choice #1.5 The Monty Hall Problem Game Show  3 doors  1 Car & 2 Goats  You pick a door . #1  Host knows what’s behind all the doors and he opens another door. or change to door #2?  .g. say #3.e.

Western State University.Now two doors.”  Ph. Parade Magazine Sept 9 1990 Marilyn vos Savant  Guinness Book of Records -Highest IQ  “Yes you should switch.  .D.s . 1 goat & 1 car so chances of winning are 1/2 for door #1 and 1/2 for door #2.  “You are the goat” . The first door has a 1/3 chance of winning while the second has a 2/3 chance of winning.Ask Marilyn.

the sample space is:  {CGG. GGC}  Pick a door e.Who’s right?  At the start.g. GG C }  So Marilyn was right. GCG. you should switch. GC G. #1 1 in 3 chance of winning  Host shows you a goat so now   { C GG. .

Not convinced? Imagine a game with 100 doors.  1 F430 Ferrari.  Host opens 98 of the 99 other doors.  You pick a door. Prob = 99/100  . 99 Goats.  Do you stick with your original choice? Prob = 1/100  Or move to the unopened door.

BG. GB. BB} => P(OC = G) = 1/2  .  {GB. BB}  Equally likely events  One child is a boy:  GG is impossible  {BG.Boys. Girls and Monty Hall Sample Space ( listing oldest child first)  {GG. BB} =>  P(OC = G) = 2/3  Luke is 6 months old. GB.

Odd Socks It is winter and the ESB are on strike. In your sock drawer there was one pair of two black socks and one odd brown one. This morning when you woke up it was dark. .

UCD gathers all it’s exam information .EXAMS Campus Female Male Pass Rate Pass Rate Belfield 40% 33% ET/ 75% Carysfort etc. 71% Seeing this evidence amale student takes UCD to court saying there is discimination against male students.

71% .EXAM Pass Rates Overall Female pass rate is 56% Overall Male pass rate is 60% HOW CAN THIS BE? Campus Female Male Pass Rate Pass are Rate LYING Clearly UCD ! Belfield 40% 33% ET/ 75% Carysfort etc.

Simpson’s Paradox Overall Female pass rate is 56% Overall Male pass rate is Campus Female Male 60% Pass Rate Pass Rate Belfield 40% = 20/50 33% = 10/30 ET/ 30/40 Carysfort =75% etc. 50/90 = 56% 50/70 = 71% 60/100 =60% .

Hit and RUN Once upon a time in Hicksville. 85% of taxis are Green and 15% are Blue. In the subsequent court case the judge ordered that the witness’s observation under the conditions that . A witness identified the taxi as being Blue. There are two taxi companies in Hicksville. USA there was a night-time hit and run accident involving a taxi. Green and Blue.

Hit and RUN What is the probability that it was indeed a blue taxi that was involved in the accident? .

DNA You are holiday in Belfast and an explosion destroys the Odessey arena. In court you protest your . You are subsequently charged with being a member of a prescribed paramilitary organisation and with causing the explosion. You are seen running from the explosion and are arrested.

Your lawyer at first disputes this evidence and hires an independent scientist. The forensic scientist indicates that DNA found on the bomb matches your DNA.DNA Their forensic scientist delivers the following vital evidence. However the second forensic scientist also says .

.DNA What do you do? It appears as if you are going to spend the rest of your days in jail.

The National Lottery .

Now anybody at all can win the lottery and become a millionaire” .“I lied. cheated and stole to become a millionaire.

245.286 4 1 in 555 .GAME #1: LOTTO 6/42  What are the chance of winning with one selection of 6 numbers? Matches Chances of Winning 6 5 1 in 5.786 1 in 24.

785/5.245.999999809 If only one jackpot winner then: Positive E(win) if Jackpot >5.785 .245.786) – 1Euro*(5.245.0000001910.245.GAME #1: LOTTO 6/42 Expected Winnings Only consider Jackpot 1 Euro get 1 play E(win)= Jackpot*(1/5.786) E(win)= Jackpot*0.

9 Months  Match 5 with Bonus 4323 Years. 6 Weeks  Match 4 2 Years.LOTTO 6/42  The average time to win each of the prizes is given by:  Match 3 with Bonus 2 Years.220 Years . 8 Months  Match 5 116 Years. 5 Months  Share in Jackpot 25.

Tossing a fair coin .

” .  Introduction: “The results concerning …coin-tossing show that widely held beliefs … are fallacious. These results are so amazing and so at variance with common intuition that even sophisticated colleagues doubted that coins actually misbehave as theory predicts.Tossing a coin!   You are joking! That is boring … no question about it!  1957 Second edition of William Feller’s Textbook includes a chapter on cointossing.

 Lim N-> P( #H = #T ) = 1.  . Law of Averages:  As N increases the chances that there are equal numbers of heads and tails among the 2N tosses increases.  In the limit as N tends to infinity the probability of matching numbers of heads and tails approaches 1.Tossing a coin!  Toss a coin 2N times.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead .

3125 0.Prob of equal numbers of H and T # of 2 4 tosses ½ Prob 3/8 6 8 5/16 35/128 63/256 0.273 10 0.5 0.375 0.246 .