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Introduction to Insulin
Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta

cells in the pancreas, and is central to regulating
carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.
It causes cells in the skeletal muscles, and fat
tissue to absorb glucose from the blood.
Insulin is a small protein. It contains 51 amino acid
arranged in two chains (A and B) joined together by
disulfide linkage.
The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far
back as the simplest unicellular eukaryotes.
 Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also
known to exist in Fungi and Protista kingdoms.

but insulin was no isolated and specifically studied until the early 1920s. . Its relationship to blood sugar was illuminated by Polish scientists in 1889. The first insulin injection given to successfully treat a diabetic was administered in 1922 in Toronto. and intense study and manipulation of the protein has carried on since then.History of Insulin Insulin was identified as a substance in the pancreas in 1869 by German medical student Paul Langerhans. though its function and properties were not known.

oxidation and signal peptide cleavage Endoplasmic Recticulum export.Human Insulin Production In Body Translation and translocation Folding.Golgi transport and vesicle packaging Protease cleavage liberate C-peptide Carboxypeptidase E produces mature insulin .

Human insulin production by genetic engineering .


Upstream production of INSULIN Step 1: Obtaining the insulin gene .

Step 2: Insertion of gene into plasmid Restriction enzyme and ligase is involve .

Step 3: Transfection Using CaCl and eletroporation treatment .

Step 4: Media equipment preparation Fermentation .broth containing antibiotic (ampicillin and lactose) .

Downstream production of INSULIN Step 6: Isolation of crude products Cells are removed from tanks and are lysed Eg. lysosomal enzyme is used to digest the outer layer of the bacterial cells and detergent mixture is subsequently added to separate the cell wall membrane. . For enzyme digestion.

along with additional steps which exploit differences in hydrophobicity. This uses several chromatographic methods.Step 7: Purification of crude product Centrifugation is conducted to helps separate the cell components from the products.  Stringent purification of the recombinant insulin chains must be taken to remove any impurities. .

.Step 8: Obtaining Insulin Chain The proteins isolated after lysis consists of the fusion of β-galactosidase and insulin chains due to the fact that there is no termination or disruption to the synthesis of these two proteins as the genes are linked together.


resulting in Humulin . and the chains are joint through a reaction known as reduction-reoxidation under betamercaptoethanol and air oxidation.Step 9: Synthesis of active insulin Two chains (A and B) forms disulfide bonds using sodium dithionate and sodium sulphite. .synthetic human insulin.


Step 10: PR-HPLC to obtain highly purified insulin Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (PR-HPLC) is performed lastly to remove almost all the impurities. The insulin then can be polished and packaged to be sold in the industries. to produce highly purified insulin. .


.INSULIN AND ITS INVOLVEMENT IN DIABETES Insulin is a hormone that your body produces to help convert the food you eat into energy People with diabetes might need insulin either because they don’t produce enough insulin or they can’t properly use the insulin that they do produce or both. Insulin is the hormone that helps glucose move from the blood into your body cells.

The most common way to get insulin is to inject it with an insulin pen. syringe. or pump.Some areas of the body to use include the:  Abdomen (except a two inch circle around the belly button)  Thighs (top and outer parts)  Backs of the upper arms . Insulin works best when injected into the fat layer just beneath the skin.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body develops a resistance to any insulin that is produced or when the body produces insufficient amounts of insulin. Types of Diabete s Type 1 diabetes is a condition that occurs when the pancreas either does not produce insulin or produces very little insulin. also known as sugar diabetes. occurs when the body is either unable to produce enough insulin or is unable to use the insulin that is produced. . Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs when blood glucose levels are elevated but not high enough to be considered a symptom of fullblown diabetes.WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes mellitus.

How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels .

Once the container is open. it can be stored at room temperature for as long as the label permits.” . Never use insulin after the expiration date.Safety Precautions Keep unopened insulin containers in the refrigerator. Use needle tips and syringes once and then dispose of them in a safe container labeled “diabetes supplies. Keep insulin products from becoming too hot or too cold.

. Of special concern is that the carcinogenic potential of insulin analogues remains to be determined on human carcinoma tissue.Conclusion Insulin analogues are just such a product as they are artificial derivatives of the natural hormone insulin. designed to improve the absorption profiles compared to human insulin after subcutaneous injection.