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Module 12

Water Sensitive Urban Design

Sustainability of Urban Water
• A Scarce Resource in The Driest
Continent
– Water Supply
– Wastewater
– Stormwater

• The Natural and Built Environments
– Can they be Separated?
– Is it a Partnership?

Sustainable Urban Water Management
• Minimise Hydrologic Impacts of
Urban Development
• Integrated Water Cycle
Management
– Water Supply
– Waste Water
– Stormwater
• Sustainable Urban Development
• Water Sensitive Urban Design

Urban Stormwater Objectives
• Protect and Improve Natural Water
Systems within the Urban Environment
– Focus on Ecosystem Health
– Improve Water Quality
– Reduce Runoff
• Volume
• Peak

– Minimise Infrastructure Costs
– Improve Amenity and Aesthetics

Stormwater Drainage Systems
• Separate Sewerage and Stormwater
Systems in Australia
• Combined Systems in USA and Europe
• Primary Aim is Flood Protection
• In the Past Stormwater Quality not
Seen as Important

Stormwater entering into a Pit .

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Urban Development • Clearing of Vegetation • Increase in Impervious Surfaces – Roofs. Concrete Paving. Roads • Efficient Drainage System • Large Areas with Little or no Vegetation • Lawn Watering • Over Use of Fertilizer .

Impacts of Urban Development • Increased Volume of Runoff – Decreased Infiltration • Decreased Time to Peak Runoff – Improved Drainage Efficiency • Increased Peak Runoff • Changes in Natural Urban Streams – Increased Width – Increased Depth – Flatter Bed Slopes • Upstream Scour / Downstream Deposition .

copper. Vegetation..Urban Development Pollutants • • • • • • • • Gross Pollutants (Litter. Sediment) Fine Sediment Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) Pathogens (E Coli. lead and zinc) Dissolved Oxygen Demanding Substances Detergents Hydrocarbons (oils. fuel etc.) . viruses) Metals (cadmium. bacteria. nickel.

Effects of Urban Pollution • Reduction in Aesthetic Values • Smothering of Aquatic Plants • Algal Blooms • Fish Kills and Aquatic Ecosystems • Health Hazard .

Design Criteria • Objectives of WSUD – Improve Ecosystem Health of Waterways – Reduce Total Load of Pollutants Reaching Waterway .

Design Criteria • Capture Within WSUD System: – 80% of Total Suspended Solids – 45% of Total Phosphorus – 45% of Total Nitrogen From: Victorian Stormwater Committee. (1999). “Urban Stormwater: Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines” .

SQID’s • Stormwater Quality Improvement Devices – Devices that are Installed Within the Stormwater Drainage System to Improve the Quality of Urban Stormwater .

Gross Pollutant Traps • Generic Name for Structures that are Designed to Trap Gross Pollutants • Typically Includes Screens and Collection Basin or Basket .

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CDS Gross Pollutant Trap http://www.com.au .eimcowater.

rocla.CleasnsAll Gross Pollutant Trap Rocla http://www.au/water_quality/cleansall .com.pipe.

au/ProdsServices/EnvWaterSolns/humegard.Humegard Gross Pollutant Trap Rinker Materials (Developed at Swinburne) http://www.com.rinker.shtml .

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au .ecosol.Ecosol Gross Pollutant Trap http://www.com.

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Vegetated Swales or Grass Swales • Vegetated Open Channel – Often Grass Covered • Use Vegetation to Treat Pollutants – Filtration through Vegetation – Sedimentation of Coarse Particles • Pollutants Treated – Suspended Solids – Nutrients Attached to Particles .

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Shape is an issue! .

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Bioretention Systems • Filtration of Water Through Media – Soil – Sand – Gravel • Biological and Chemical Treatment – Biological Slimes attached to Media • Best for Very Fine Particles and Nutrients .

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Bioretention Systems .

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Sand Filters • Sand filters operate in a similar manner as bioretention systems • Exception is that they do not support any vegetation • Best suited in confined spaces .

Sand Filters .

Infiltration Measures .

Infiltration Measures .

Sediment Basin .

Sediment Basin .

Sediment Basin Outlet Structure .

Porous Pavements • Filters Stormwater Through Road Pavement • Captures Fine Particles • Different Pavement Types – Gravel Based Media – Paving Blocks – Porous Asphalt • Maintenance Issues – Clogging with Fine Particles – High Heel Shoes .

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Porous Pavements .

Constructed Wetlands • Marsh or Swamp • Emergent Macrophytes – eg: Rushes. Reeds and Sedges • Typically Shallow Water • Interface Between Water Bodies and Land • May Include Ponds or Deeper Water • Characteristic Feature is Emergent Macrophytes • Remove Pollutants Associated with Fine Particles .

Constructed Wetlands .

Constructed Wetlands .

Constructed Wetlands .

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Ponds and Lakes .

Ponds and Lakes .

Flood Bypass .

Integrated Design and Management A Multidisciplinary Approach • Urban Planners • Design Engineers • Landscape Architects • Construction Managers and Crew • Infrastructure Managers • Community .

The Urban Landscape • Integral Part of Urban Water Management • Vegetation Essential in Stormwater Treatment – Vegetated Swales – Bioretention Systems – Wetlands – Ponds • Community Involvement – Non-structural Management .

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Urban Riparian Vegetation • Good – Essential for Ecosystem Health • Aquatic and Riparian Habitat – Runoff Volume Reduction – Erosion Reduction – Pollutant Treatment • Bad – Increased Flood Levels .