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Original Title: Chapter 1 (Part 1) Introduction to Engineering Calculations

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CHAPTER 1

Basic Concepts

existing one, calculation of amounts and

properties of raw materials and products is

crucial.

This chapter presents the calculation

techniques of expressing the values of

process variables.

Topic Outcomes

At the end of Chapter 1, you should:

Convert one set of units in a function or

equation into another equivalent set for

mass, length, area, volume, time, energy and

force using conversion factor tables.

Identify the units commonly used to express

both mass and weight.

Identify the number of significant figures in a

given value and state the precision with

which the value is known.

Introduction to

Engineering

Calculations

Units and

Dimensions

Conversion of

Units

Systems of

Units

Units

Added

Example: 2.05kg

Units

+3.56kg (yes)

Subtracted

Example: 5m 3m

(yes)

7hr 2min (no)

Multiplied

Divided

Example : 4m

12 m2

x 3m =

Conversion of Units

To convert a quantity expressed in terms of one unit to

equivalent in terms of another unit, multiply the given

quantity by the conversion factor.

Conversion factor

of a quantity expressed in different units.

36 mg

1g

1000 mg

0.036 g

Conversion

factor

Dimensional Equation

Convert 1 cm/s2 to km/yr2

1. Write the given quantity and units on left.

2. Write the units of conversion factors that cancel the old unit and

replace them with the desired unit.

1 cm

s2

h2

day2

km

s2

h2

day2

yr2

cm

1 cm

36002 s2

s2

12 h2

12 day2

km

100 x 1000

yr2

12 yr2

=

1m

1 km

100 cm

1000 m

Systems of Units

8

Base Units

Base Units

Quantity

Length

SI

Symbol

American

Symbol

CGS

Symbol

meter

foot

ft

centimeter

cm

lbm

gram

Mass

kilogram

kg

pound

mass

Moles

grammole

mole

pound mole

lbmole

gram-mole

mole

Time

second

second

second

Temperature

Kelvin

Rankine

Kelvin

Multiple Units

10

-Example :

Years

Days

Hours

Minutes

Seconds

-Example :

tera (T) = 10

12

centi (c) = 10

-2

giga (G) = 10

milli (m) = 10

-3

mega (M) = 10

micro () = 10

-6

nano (n) = 10

-9

kilo (k) = 10

12

Derivatives SI Units

Derived SI Units

Quantity

Unit

Volume

Liter

Force

Newton

(SI)

Dyne

(CGS)

1 kg.m/s2

1 g.cm/s2

Pressure

Pascal

Pa

1 N/m2

Energy/

Work

Joule

Calorie

J

cal

1 N.m = 1 kg.m2/s2

4.184 J =4.184 kg.m2/s2

Power

Watt

1 J/s = 1 kg.m2/s3

Systems of Units

3 systems of unit:

a) SI system

b) American engineering system

c) CGS system

Derived unit for velocity in the SI System? The CGS

System? The American Engineering System?

EXERCISE

second

Length

1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm

=106 microns = 1010

angstrom

= 39.37 in = 3.2808 ft

= 1.0936 yd =

0.0006214 mile

1 ft = 12 in = 1/3 yd =

0.3048 m

= 30.48 cm

mi

mile

1

m

1 hr

m

1 1

0.447

hr

hr 0.0006214 mile 3600 s

s

14

EXERCISE

Convert 23 Ibm.ft/min

kg.cm/s2

Mass

1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001

metric tonne

= 2.20462 Ibm =

35.2739 oz

1 Ibm = 16 oz = 5 x 10-4 ton

= 453.593 g =

0.453593 kg

to its equivalent

Length

1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm

=106 microns = 1010

angstrom

= 39.37 in = 3.2808 ft

= 1.0936 yd =

0.0006214 mile

1 ft = 12 in = 1/3 yd =

0.3048 m

= 30.48

cm2

100 cm

12 min

kg.cm

Ibm. ft

Ibm. ft 0.453593 kg

23

23

2 2

2

2

min

min

1 Ibm

3.2808 ft 60 s

15

0.088

s2

16

Force is proportional to product of mass and acceleration.

Usually defined using derived units ;

1 Newton (N)

=

1 kg.m/s2

1 dyne

=

1 g.cm/s2

1 Ibf

= 32.174 Ibm.ft/s2

Weight of an object is force exerted on the object by

gravitational attraction of the earth i.e. force of gravity, g.

Value of gravitational acceleration:

g

= 9.8066 m/s2 = 980.66 cm/s2

= 32.174 ft/s2

gc is used to denote the conversion factor from a natural

gc

1 kg.m/s2

1N

= 32.174 lbm.ft/s2

1 lbf

See this example:

Given the density of 2 ft3 water is 62.4 lbm/ft3. At the sea level,

the gravitational acceleration is 32.174 ft/s2.(Refer to page 13)

The mass of water is

lbm

M 62.4 3 2 ft 3 124.8lbm

ft

lbm

W 62.4 3 2 ft 3 32.174 ft / s 2

ft

Conversion factor

1lb f

2

32.174lbm ft / s

124.8lb f

Dimensions

Quantity

SI

Unit

Dimension

Kilogra

m

Meter

Temperature

Time

Mass

Length

21

22

EXAMPLE

Spaghetti Recipe

Ingredients:

20 ml of cooking oil

100 gram of minced meat

15 cm spaghetti sticks

Value

Unit

Dimension

20

milliliter

LENGTH

[L]

100

gram

MASS

[M]

15

centimete

r

LENGTH

[L]

23

Dimensional Homogeneity

Quantities can be added/subtracted if ONLY their units

are same.

Unit same, the DIMENSION of each term must be the

same.

Eg. : VELOCITY = LENGTH / TIME

(L) / (T)

(L) / (T)

(m/s)

(m/s)

24

dimensionally homogeneous:

all additive terms on both sides of

the equation must have same

dimensions

25

Examples:

F = ma

m = mass (kg) = ( M )

a = acceleration (m/s2)= ( L) / ( T )2

Unit:

Dimension:

(M)(L) =(M) x (L)

( T )2

( T )2

(M)(L) =(M)(L)

( T )2

( T )2

26

LEFT

= RIGHT

DIMENSIONALLY

HOMOGENEOUS

(CONSISTENT )

Dimensional Analysis

This is a very important tool to check your work

Eg. : Doing a problem you get the answer distance

d = v t2 (velocity x time2)

Units on left side = ( L )

Units on right side = ( L )/( T ) x ( T )2 = ( L ) .( T )

answer must be wrong!!

27

The period P of a swinging pendulum depends only

on the length of the pendulum d and the

acceleration of gravity g.

Which of the following formulas for P could be

correct ?

Given :

d = units of length ( L )

g = units of ( L / T 2).

(a)

P 2 dg

(b)

P 2

(c

d

g

28

P 2

d

g

Make sure Left & Right unit dimensionally

homogeneous (consistent).

(a) P

(a)

(a)

2 dg

2

L L

L 2 4 T

T T

Not

Right !!

(b) P 2

d

g

L

T2 T

L

T2

Not

Right !!

29

(c) P 2

d

g

L

T2 T

L

T2

Correct units!!

If an equation is dimensionally

homogeneous but its additive terms have

inconsistent unit, the terms may be made

consistent by applying conversion factors

Example:

V (m/s) = Vo (m/s) + g (m/s2) t

(min)

Apply the conversion factor

(min)

V = Vo + 60 g t

(60s/min)

Free Template from www.brainybetty.com

30

Homogeneous

= consistent in UNITS!!!

31

Dimensionless Quantities

Can be a pure number

Eg. : 2, 1.3 ,5/2

a multiplicative combination of variables with no net

dimensions

Eg. :

ud

Re

= (g/cm3) , u = (cm/s),

d = (cm), = (g/cm.s)

32

DIMENSIONLESS

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