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ClassBAmplifier

TheprimarydisadvantageofClassAamplifieris

Lowefficiencyratingmajorityofthepowerdrawnfromthesupplyby
classAamplifierisusedupbytheamplifieritself.

Amplifiershouldbeabletodeliverthepowerdrawnfromthesupplytothe
load.

ClassBamplifierwasdevelopedtoimprovethelowefficiencyratingofthe
classAamplifier.

Maximumtheoreticalefficiencyrating78.5%

Meansthat78.5%ofthepowerdrawnfromthesupplycanideallybe
deliveredtotheload.

ClassBamplifierconsumesverylittlepowerwhenthereisnoinputsignal
comparedtoclassA.

2typesofClassBAmplifier
1.

Complimentarysymmetrypushpullamplifier

2.

Transformercoupledpushpullamplifier

ThetermpushpullcomesfromthefactthatthetwotransistorsinclassB
amplifierconductonalternatinghalfcyclesoftheinput.

InClassBthedcbiasleavesthetransistorbiasedjustoff.TheACsignalturnsthe
transistoron.Thisisessentiallynobias.
ThetransistoronlyconductswhenitisturnedonbyoftheACcycle.
InordertogetafullACcycleoutofaClassBamplifier,youneedtwotransistors.
OneisannpntransistorthatprovidesthenegativehalfoftheACcycleandtheotherisa
pnptransistorthatprovidesthepositivehalf.

ClassBOperationOverview

During+vehalfcycleoftheinput

Q1isbiasedonandQ2isbiasedoff

Duringvehalfcycleoftheinput

Vcc

R1
Q1
Q1 on

Q2isbiasedonandQ1isbiasedoff

Bothtransistorsareneverfullyonatthe
sametimeisthekeytothehigh
efficiencyratingoftheamplifier.

Withnoinput(quiscentstate),both
transistorsarebiasedatcutoff.

Wheninputgoes+ve,Q1isbiasedabove
cutoff.Q1willconduct.Q2stillbiasedat
cutoff.

Whentheinputgoesve,Q1isreturned
incutoffstate,Q2isbiasedabovecutoff.
Q2willconduct.

R2

R3

Q 2 on

Q2
RL

R4

Crossoverdistortionwilloccur
causedbythebiasingarrangement.

Input(DC)Power
Vcc

Vcc

One -half
circuit

One -half
circuit

Load

Load

One-half
circuit

One-half
circuit

Vcc

Pi (dc) VccIdc
2
Idc I ( p)

Idcistheaverageordccurrentdrawnfrom
thepowersupplies.
InClassB,thecurrentdrawnfromasingle
powersupplyhastheformofafullwave
rectifiedsignal.
Thecurrentdrawnfrom2powersupplieshas
theformofhalfwaverectifiedsignalfrom
eachsupply.

OutputPower(AC)
Thepowerdeliveredtotheload(refertoaresistanceRL)can
becalculatedusinganyoneofanumberofequations.
Usingrmsvoltageatvolt,
2

VL (rms )
Po(ac)
RL
Usingpeaktopeakoutputvoltage
2

VL ( p p )
Po(ac)
8 RL

Usingpeakoutputvoltage
2

VL ( p )
Po(ac)
2 RL

Efficiency
ThemaximumefficiencyofaClassBis78.5%.

%=Po(AC)/Pi(DC)*100
PowerDissipatedbyOutputTransistors

P2Q Pi (dc) Po(ac)


PQ

P2Q
2

MaximumPowerConsiderations
ForclassBoperations,themaximumoutputpowerisdeliveredtotheloadwhen
VL(p)=Vcc
2
Vcc
MaximumPo(ac)=
2 RL

ThecorrespondingpeakaccurrentIpis,

I ( p)

Vcc
RL

Themaximumvalueofaveragecurrentfromthepower
supplyis

2
2Vcc
Idc(max) Ip

RL

2Vcc 2Vcc 2

Maximuminputpower, Pi (dc ) VccIdc(max) Vcc
RL
RL
Maximumtransistorpowerdissipation,

2Vcc 2
P2Q (max) 2
RL

ClassBAmplifierCircuits
TransformerCoupledPushPull

Thecentertappedtransformerontheinputproducesoppositepolaritysignalstothetwo
transistorinputs.
AndthecentertappedtransformerontheoutputcombinesthetwohalvesoftheAC
waveformtogether.

DisadvantageofClassBAmplifier
1.
2.

CrossoverDistortion
Thermalrunaway

Vin

0.7V

1.Crossoverdistortion
0V
IfthetransistorsQ1
andQ2donot turnon -0.7V

andoffatexactlythe
sametime,thenthere
Vout
isagapintheoutput
Withnosignalapplied,neither
transistorconductorsandno
voltage.
currentflowsfromeither
supply.
Thetransistorconductwhenasignalapplied
exceed0.7V,
ThereisadelaybeforeQ1startstoconductwhenthesignalisincreasingfromzero
voltageinapositivedirection.
Similarly,astheinputapproacheszerovoltageattheendofpositivecycle,Q1stop
conductingandwhenthevoltageapproachesbelow0.7Vfornegativecycle,Q2will

conduct.

1.

Thermalrunaway
ClassABamplifierisdevelopbyusingtwodiodesinplaceoftheresistorsbetween
twobases.
Fordiodebiastoeliminatetheproblemofthermalrunaway,twoconditionsmustbe
met:
1.

Thediodesandthetransistorbaseemitterjunctionsmustbeverynearly
perfectlymatched.

Theforwardvoltagedropsacrossthediodeswillbeapproximatelyequalto
theVBEdropsofthetransistors.

2.

Thediodesandthetransistorsmustbeinthermalcontact.Thismeansthat
theymustbeinphysicalcontactwitheachothersothattheoperating
temperatureofthediodeswillalwaysequaltheoperatingtemperatureofthe
transistors.

Thediodescanbeplacedinthermalcontactwiththepowertransistorby:
i.

Attachedtotheheatsinktabofapowertransistor.

ii.

Attachedtotheheatsinkonwhichthetransistorismounted.

ClassBAmplifierCircuits
QuasiComplementaryPushPullAmplifier

ADarlingtonpairandaFeedbackpaircombinationperformthepushpulloperation.This
increasestheoutputpowercapability.

AmplifierDistortion
IftheoutputofanamplifierisnotacompleteACsinewave,thenitisdistortingtheoutput.
Theamplifierisnonlinear.
ThisdistortioncanbeanalyzedusingFourieranalysis.InFourieranalysisanydistorted
periodicwaveformcanbebrokendownintofrequencycomponents.
Thesecomponentsareharmonicsofthefundamentalfrequency.

Harmonics
Harmonicsareintegermultiplesofafundamentalfrequency.
Fundamentalfrequency:5kHz
1stharmonic:1x5kHz
2ndharmonic:2x5kHz
3rdharmonic:3x5kHz
4thharmonic:4x5kHz
etc.
Notethatthe1stand3rdharmonicsarecalledoddharmonicsandthe2ndand4tharecalled
evenharmonics.

HarmonicDistortion

AccordingtoFourieranalysisifasignalisnotacompleteACsinewave,thenitcontains
harmonics.

HarmonicDistortionCalculations

Thisharmonicdistortion(D)canbecalculated:
%nth harmonic distortion %Dn

An
100
A1

[Formula15.30]

whereA1istheamplitudeofthefundamentalfrequency
andAnistheamplitudeofthehighestharmonic.
Thetotalharmonicdistortion(THD):

%THD

2
2

D 32 D 24 ... 100

[Formula15.31]

PowerTransistorHeatSinking
Highpowertransistorsdissipateda
lotofpowerinheat.Thiscanbe
destructivetotheamplifieraswell
astosurroundingcomponents.

Thesetransistorswillrequireheatsinking.

ClassCAmplifiers

AClassCamplifierconductsforlessthan180.Inordertoproduceafullsinewave
output,theClassCusesatunedcircuit(LandCtank)toprovidethefullACsinewave.
TheClassCisusedextensivelyinradiocommunicationscircuits.

ClassDAmplifier

Slide31

AClassDamplifieramplifiespulses.Itrequiresapulsedinput.

Therearemanycircuitsthatcanconvertasinewavetoapulse,aswellascircuitsthat
convertapulsetoasinewave.Thiscircuithasapplicationsindigitalcircuitry.