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Spot Weld Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties
Lesson Objectives
When you finish this lesson you will
understand:
Peel Chisel and Tensile Mechanical
testing techniques
Factors which effect performance in
these mechanical tests
The importance of these test for part
design

Learning Activities
1. View Slides;
2. Read Notes,
3. Listen to lecture
4. Do on-line
workbook

Keywords
Peel Test, Chisel Test, Tensile Shear Test, Multiple Nugget Test,
Weld Bond Tensile Test, Coupon Dimensions, Weld Spacing,
Electrode Conditioning, Button Shape, Plastic Hinge

Mechanical Properties of Spot Welds


Peel Tests
Chisel Test
Tensile Test
Tensile Shear Ratios
Torsion Test
Impact Tests
Fatigue Test

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

Dickinson, Welding in Auto Industry,


AISI, 1981

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

Advantages of Peel Test


Ease of Performance
Low Cost
Ability to use on Shop Floor as quality control test

Disadvantages of Peel Test


Only in restricted cases are quantitative values
relating to the strength of the weld nugget or its
performance in service obtained
Nugget fracture appearance is not a reliable
predictor of load-carrying capacity or impact
resistance

Geometric Effects on the Peel Test

Distance x can
cause a wide
variation in load
results, thus peel
test can NOT be
used with
confidence to
develop
mechanical
property data

Orts, Armco Steel, Private Communication,


Nov 1980

Instrumented Peel Test

Area = Energy
Static Toughness

Sawhill, Spot Weldability of High Strength Sheet Steel,


Welding Journal, Jan 1980

Sawhill, Spot Weldability of High Strength Sheet Steel,


Welding Journal, Jan 1980

Peel Tested While


Still Warm

Promotes Full
Nugget Pull-Out

Peel Tested When


Cold

Promotes Partial
Nugget Failure

Mechanical Properties of Spot Welds


Peel Tests
Chisel Test
Tensile Test
Tensile Shear Ratios
Torsion Test
Impact Tests
Fatigue Test

Dickinson, Welding in Auto Industry,


AISI, 1981

Min. Nugget With Peel Test

Weld Time

Min. Nugget With Chisel


Test

Weld Current
Chisel Test Tends to Expose Nugget Closer to Fusion Line

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):


Why do automotive manufactures prefer the chisel test on
the production line over the peel test?

Mechanical Properties of Spot Welds


Peel Tests
Chisel Test
Tensile Test - Tensile Shear
Tensile Shear Ratios
Torsion Test
Impact Tests
Fatigue Test

Dickinson, Welding in Auto Industry,


AISI, 1981

AWS Spec D8.9-97, 1997

Kraus, A Practical Design approach


Welding Journal, Oct 1961

Dickinson, Welding in Auto Industry,


AISI, 1981

Vanden Bossche, Ultimate Strength and Failure Mode..,


SAE paper 770214, Feb 1977

Dickinson, Republic Steel Corp Internal Document, 1978

Tensile Shear Test


Single Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Material Thickness
Nugget Size (Current & Time)
BM Strength
Carbon Content
BM Structure
Coatings
Hold Time
Post Weld Furnace Treatment
Test Temperature
Test Cross Head Speed
Multiple Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Weld Bonding (Nugget plus Adhesive)

Material Thickness Tensile Shear

In the thinner gages, the lower C


Steels tend to have higher strength
because the higher carbon
materials develop hard brittle
interfacial failures.

Heuschkel, Some metalurgical aspects of carbon steel spot welding,


Welding Journal, Oct 1947

Nugget
Diameter
Tensile
Shear
Increased Tensile Shear
Nugget Diameter
Sheet Thickness
BM Strength

Pollard, Spot Welding Characteristics of HSLA,


Welding Journal, Aug 1974

Nugget Diameter (Current & Time & BM Strength)


Tensile Shear

Nugget
Pullout

Increase BM Strength
Interfacial Failure

Increased Weld Current


Greatly Increased Nugget
Greatly Increased Tensile
Shear Strength

Increased Weld Time


Slightly Increased Nugget
Greatly Increased Tensile
Shear Strength

Increased BM Strength
Increased Tensile
Shear
Pollard, Spot Welding Characteristics of HSLA,
Welding Journal, Aug 1974

Nugget
Dia

Tensile
Shear
Strength

Is it Current, or Effect of Current on Nugget Diameter?

Electrode
Face

Combinations of Current and


Electrode Face Diameter gives
Constant Nugget Diameter

Current

Relationship between
Nugget Dia and Strength
Not Current/Strength

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):


What criteria do you suppose automotive and appliance
designers use when selecting the type of weld joint they will
recommend for their products? Think about the joint
designs in cars and appliances.

Base Metal Strength


Solid Solution Strengthening
Grain Refinement Through Special Processing
Precipitation Strengthening
Cold-work Strengthening
Heat Treatment Strengthening (Hardening)

Effect of Carbon Content

Hard Brittle Martensite


Interfacial Failures

Heuschkel, Some Metallurgical Aspects.


Welding Journal, Oct 1947

Effect of Base Metal Strength


Grain Refinement
Precipitation

10o

The Stronger Materials


have less sample rotation
thus they carry greater
tensile shear load than
expected

30o

Pollard, Spot Weldability of HSLA Steels,


ASM/ADDRG Seminar, Nov 12&13, 1971

Effect of Structure
Tensile Shear Strength Increases when a material is giving the following
Annealed
Bainitic (Heat Treated)
Martensitic (Heat Treated)
Cold-rolled (Lower at higher currents due to HAZ softening)

Chandel, Mech & Metallurgical Aspects


Metals Technology, Sept 1974

TSS 9.5T 1.26UTS 0.76


Defourney, Spot Welding of HSS,
IIW 646-80, 1980

Heuschkel, Expression of Spot Weld Properties,


Weldign Journal Oct 1952

Sawhill, Spot Weldability of HSS,


Welding Journal, Jan 1980

Critical Diameter to Thickness Ratio

d = nugget diameter
t = sheet thickness
ysbm= yield strength base metal
yswm = yield strength weld metal

Thus, higher strength materials


should have larger nuggets (electrode)
Vanden Bossche, Ultimate Strength and Failure Modes
SAE 770214, Feb 1977

Effect of Coating

When only Zn-Zn


Bonds lower strength
than bare seel.

When steel-steel bonds


strength equal to or greater

Armco Steel Fabrication Data, 1981

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):


We have looked at some factors which effect tensile shear
strength. And some people have developed empirical
equations to calculate tensile shear strength. How reliable
are these equations? What factors might lead to
inaccuracies?

Hold Time Tensile Shear

Hold Time Sensitive


Material in Peel Test

Not Hold Time


Sensitive in Tensile
Shear

Hold time appears to have no effect


Sawhill, Spot weldability for High Strength Steels,
SAE 810352, Feb 1981

Effect of Post
Weld Furnace
Treatment
>0.2% C Steels
Slight loss in strength
No benefit + Expensive

In Machine Q&T
> 0.2 % C Steels
Up to 300% benefit
Must be done correct

<0.2% Carbon
No Benefit

Balasubramanian et al, Improvement of Resistance Spot Weld Characteristics,


Welding Research Abroad, Nov 1978

Effect of Test Temperature for Plain Carbon Steel

Heuschkel, The Expression of Spot Weld Properties,


Welding Journal, Oct 1952

Effect of Cross Head Speed on Tensile Testing Machine

Impact

Chandel, Mech Aspects pf Spot-WeldedJoints,


Metals Technology, Jan 1977

Tensile Test
Single Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Multiple Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Total Spot Weld Area
Sheet Thickness
Nugget Rotation (spot pattern)
Weld Bonding (Nugget plus Adhesive)

Dickinson, Welding in Auto,


AISI, Aug 1981

Effect of Total Nugget Area on Double Transverse Spot Welds

Capelli, et al, Fatigue Strength of Spot-welded Joints..


Welding of HSLA Steels, ASM, 1978

Effect of Increasing Number of Welds

Non-uniform loading on
Outside welds causes
deviation

Hills, Effect of number of welds in spot welded,


Iron & Steelmaking, Vol 23, No 2, 1996

Effect of Sheet Thickness on Double Transverse Spot Welds

Capelli, et al, Fatigue Strength of Spot-welded Joints..


Welding of HSLA Steels, ASM, 1978

Effect of Nugget Rotation Multiple Spot Array


Load = f(load per weld, stiffness)
Max load per weld reduced by:
Closely Spaced Welds
In line with load
Increased Nugget Size

Stiffness Increased by:


Closely Spaced Welds inline
Specimen Width

Orts, Fatigue Strength of Spot Weld Joints in HSLA,


SAR 810355, Feb 1981

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):


We have examined tensile shear strength on single welds
and on combinations of multiple welds. Does anything
surprise you about the multiple weld samples? Why are so
few reports presented with multiple weld data?

Tensile Test
Single Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Multiple Nugget Test Tensile Shear
Weld Bonding (Nugget plus Adhesive)

High Modulus
Adhesive Only

Weld Bond, Relative


Height of Peaks
Depends on Number
of Welds

Low Modulus
Adhesive Only
Spot Weld Only

Hills, Effect of number of welds in spot welded,


Iron & Steelmaking, Vol 23, No 2, 1996

High Modulus Adhesive

Lower Modulus Adhesive

Fewer Welds
Adhesive Dominates

Hills, Effect of number of welds in spot welded,


Iron & Steelmaking, Vol 23, No 2, 1996

Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):


We will study more about weld bonding techniques later.
Why is this technique so infrequently used?