# RF – Power Amplifier

Class A NI Multisim 10 tutorial

Design of a Class A amplifier

Open Multisim 10 and start building the amplifier circuit like in figure. Press CTRL+W to open the Component Library.
Input signal Biasing circuit RF amplifier stage LC resonator AND impedance matching circuit Load

Design of a Class A amplifier

  

Search Component Library for devices you need to build the circuit. Use P123 transistor in RF-MOS family. Analog family contains R, C and L Sources family is for V and I generators

Design of a Class A amplifier
After you placed all components you need to calculate their parameters in order for the amplifier to work properly.  Let’s go though some mathematic.

Design of a Class A amplifier

POWER TRANSFER
 Assume

we want to build a 1W-RF amplifier. This meas that the power transferred to the load must be 1 W.
Pmax Vdd 2 Vdd 2 52 = ⇒ Rmax = = = 12.5Ω 2⋅ R 2 ⋅ P 2 ⋅1

 So

we must guaratee a maximum value of output impedence of 12.5 Ω. Let’s say we use 10 Ω (Rs).

Design of a Class A amplifier

OUTPUT MATCHING NETWORK
 We

use a LC “parallel filter” with Q=10.  For parallel circuits, Q// = X = X = 10

R Q = X L + X C ⇒ X L = 5Ω, X C = 5Ω

From here, L and C value can be evaluated as:
1 C// = = 3,2 pF 6 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 5 ⋅10 ⋅10

5 L// = = 80 pH 6 2 ⋅ π ⋅10 ⋅10

Design of a Class A amplifier

LARGE INDUCTOR (BFL)
 BFL

inductor works as a RF choke, because it “chokes off” the flow of RF current through it, and must be “large enough”.  Large enough means at least 10 times the output impedance (Rs).
X BFL 100 ≥ 10 ⋅ Rs ⇒ BFL ≥ = 1.6 µH 6 2 ⋅ π ⋅10 ⋅10

Design of a Class A amplifier

DC BLOCKING CAPACITOR
 We

must provide a DC blocking capacitor and an impedance-transforming network. This function may be combined in a LC series circuit with Q=3.4. R  Since Qseries = , evaluate L and C value as
X

R load R load L1 = = = 235nH 6 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ Q 2 ⋅ π ⋅10 ⋅10 ⋅ 3.4 1 1 Cout = = = 470 pH 6 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f ⋅ Q ⋅ Rs 2 ⋅ π ⋅10 ⋅10 ⋅ 3.4 ⋅10

Design of a Class A amplifier

BIAS POINT
 Class

A amplifier bias point must be choosen in order to have a conduction angle of 360°. Vgs ≤ Vbias ≤ Vdd use R1=3k and R2=10k. This will give us a bias voltage of
R2 10 = ⋅ Vdd = ⋅ 5 = 3,85V R1 + R 2 13

 We

Vbias

Design of a Class A amplifier

Double click on a components placed to edit their value. “Label” sheet allows you to change the component name. On “Display” sheet you can change view options.

Design of a Class A amplifier

Set signal generator parameters:
 Voltage

(RMS) = 400mV  Frequency (F) = 10 MHz  Leave other settings unchanged.

Set Vdd to 5V.  Do the same for all remaining components as depicted in schematic.

Design of a Class A amplifier

Now we have designed a circuit like the one in figure. We can combine the 2 parallel inductors to have a more compact schematic.

Design of a Class A amplifier
L1 ⋅ L 2 = 60nH L1 + L 2

L// =

Design of a Class A amplifier

Place “probes” into circuit to measure voltages and currents.

Probe

Design of a Class A amplifier

Reverse output probe direction by right clicking on the probe arrow and choose “reverse” option.

Design of a Class A amplifier

AC ANALISYS
 Let’s

go through the AC analisys to understand how well we characterized our amplifier.

Design of a Class A amplifier

Set parameters like in figure.

Design of a Class A amplifier

And, again, select output Voltage (should be Probe3) as the variable to analize.

Design of a Class A amplifier

Output graphs show the amplifier is matched to work at 10 MHz. In fact, amplitude response is unitary and phase is 0.

Design of a Class A amplifier

TRANSIENT ANALISYS
 Now,

analyze amplifier’s behaviour and output signal using transient analysis.

Design of a Class A amplifier

 

Set up preferences for transient. Set final time to 2µs Add output variables:
 Id

(probe 1)  Vin (probe 2)  Vout (probe 3)

Design of a Class A amplifier

RF – Power Amplifier
Class B NI Multisim 10 tutorial

Design of a Class B amplifier

BIAS POINT
 Now,

change class A amplifier circuit to build a new one, but class B. Like for class A, class B amplifier are still linear.  Class B amplifier bias point must be set in order to have a conduction angle of 180°. Changes are in the bias net: Vgs ≈ Vth.

Design of a Class B amplifier
 For

P123 RF transistor, Vth is about 2V, hence we can change bias circuit resistor’s values to R1=R2=10k.
Vbias R2 10 = ⋅ Vdd = ⋅ 5 = 2,5V R1 + R 2 10

 This

means that transistor amplifies only the positive half of the period of the input signal while is off for the rest of time. Complete output waveform is reconstructed by the output LC filter that works as a resonator circuit.

Design of a Class B amplifier

AC ANALISYS
 Again

we can analyze whether the circuit is characterized to work at 10 MHz or not.

Design of a Class B amplifier

You should obtain a frequency response like this one. As for class A, also class B - RF amplifier is matched to work at 10 MHz.

Design of a Class B amplifier

TRANSIENT ANALISYS

RF – Power Amplifier
Class C NI Multisim 10 tutorial

Design of a Class C amplifier

Class C are non-linear amplifiers. Bias point for this devices is set to have a conduction angle of less than 180°.
 AC

input generator can be replaced by a pulse generator. Output waveform still will be a sine due to LC oscillator.

Design of a Class C amplifier

Class C amplifier works with Vgs ≈ 0. This implies a set of new circuit changes:
 No

bias network is required.  Input signal voltage must be higher than Vth in order to be able to turn on transistor.

Design of a Class C amplifier
In order to work this circuit needs to be tuned a little better than class A and B amplifier.  We must change some parametres on output stage in order to improove LC resonator and power efficiency.

 Cout

= 200pF  C2 = 4.5nF

Design of a Class C amplifier

Design of a Class C amplifier

Double click on the pulse generator to edit its parameters like in figure.

Design of a Class C amplifier

AC ANALISYS

Design of a Class C amplifier

TRANSIENT ANALISYS

Design of a Class C amplifier
AC behaviuor shows again that amplifier is developed for 10 MHz.  Transient analysis demonstrate that class C amplifier do not amplify voltage since output waveform is quite lower than input. In fact, it amplifies current:

 Analize

input and output current or  Analize input and output power

Design of a Class C amplifier

POWER ANALISYS
 Use

wattmeters to measure input and output power.

Design of a Class C amplifier

Design of a Class C amplifier

Double click on wattmeter to see the power value supplied in that point. Run simulation to see instant power consumed.

Design of a Class C amplifier

POWER GAIN
Pin 20.3 ⋅10 −3 G= = = 45,5 −6 Pout 446.3 ⋅10

EFFICIENCY
Pout 20.3 ⋅10 −3 η= = = 0.842 −3 PDC 24.1⋅10