Lab-2: Filter design overview


Filter Design Steps

2nd order LPF

Butterworth BPF-Using Table

Chebyshev Filter Design-Using wizard

Filter Design Steps
NI Multisim 10

Filter Design Steps- LPF Butterworth
R1
0O
C1
0F
L1
0H
L2
0H
R2
0O
2
V1
1 Vpk
1kHz

0
1
3

We would like to design a 3
rd
order Low Pass
Butterworth Filter.

The procedure for designing a filter
based on a normalized prototype

Step1: you determine the order of filter that will
be needed to fulfill your design requirements.

Step2: list the element values that will produce a
lowpass filter of that order with a cutoff
frequency of 1 radian/second, with source and
load terminations of 1 Ohm connected to it.
These are the normalized prototype values

Step3: Formulas are used to scale those values
to the actual source and load impedances and to
the actual design cutoff frequency.

Filter Design Steps- LPF Butterworth
500 MHz FX The frequency at which the out of
band attenuation must be met
30 dB A (dB) Out of band attenuation
50MHz Fr The frequency at which the specified
passband ripple occurs.
1 dB R(dB) Passband Ripple— The maximum
allowable ripple within the passband
100 MHz Fc Cutoff Frequency — the point at
which 3dB

Calculate order (N) of filter
Step1:

The cutoff frequency Fc, out of band attenuation, AdB,
and its frequency Fx, are related to the order of the filter
(n) by the following formula:

• The cutoff frequency Fc, passband attenuation, RdB,
and its frequency Fr, are related to the order of the filter
(n) by the following formula:

Based on the values we entered, the filter we are
designing will have to be of order n = 3 to meet all
specifications.
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ ·
n
C
X
db
F
F
A
2
1 log 10
n
R
R
C
F
F
2
1
10
1 10

,
`

.
|
− ·

Read prototype element values from
table ---Step2:
RL=1 Ohm L3=1H C2=2F L1=1H Rs=1Ohm
R1
1O
R1
1O
L1
1H
L1
1H
C1
2F
Recall that the prototype values in the tables have been normalized with
respect to frequency and termination impedance. Note that RS = RL = 1
Ohm. If you used these values to build a filter, the cutoff frequency would be
1 Hertz, and your source and load impedances would have to be 1 Ohm.

Impedance and frequency scale
Step3:

The next step is to de-normalize the prototype element values,
scaling them up to the desired cutoff frequency and input/output
impedance. The transformation formulas that yield the appropriate
values for a desired cutoff frequency and source/load resistor value
are:
( )
L c
n
R F
C
C
π 2
·
( )
c
L n
F
R l
L
π 2
·
where:
C = the final capacitor value
L = the final inductor value
cn = low-pass prototype capacitor value from table
ln = a low-pass prototype inductor value from table
RL = the desired load resistor value, for impedance scaling
Fc = the desired cutoff frequency
2*pi*Fc= the desired cutoff radian frequency, for frequency scaling

Filter Design Steps- LPF Butterworth
R1
50O
C1
63.662pF
L1
79.577nH
L2
79.577nH
R2
50O
2
V1
1 Vpk
1kHz

XBP1
IN OUT
1
0
3
0

Filter Design Steps- LPF Butterworth
Phase Response
Magnitude Response

2nd order LPF
NI Multisim 10

2
nd
order LPF
[ ]
4
2
2
1
1 ω ω a a + + ·
2
ω
( ) ( )
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
− + + ·
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
1
1 ω ω ω
LC
LC C R L
R
P
LR
( ) [ ]
4
2
2
1 1 ω ω + · + · h butterwort P
LR
Power loss ratio in terms of polynomial of
For Butterworth, k=1, 1 ·
c
ω
2
ω
Rs
0O
g1
0H
g2
0F
g3
0O
V1
0 Vrms
0 Hz

1
2 3
0

2
nd
order LPF
From previous equations, we find

g1=g2=1.4142

g3=1
2 1
2
1
2
· ⇒ · ⇒ · LC
LC
a
( ) C L LC C R L
R
a · ⇒ · − + ⇒ · 0
4
1
0
2
2
1
Rs
0O
g1
1.4142H
g2
1.4142F
g3
1O
V1
0 Vrms
0 Hz

1
2 3
0

2
nd
order LPF

Now, frequency scaling and impedance demoralization is
needed….after all these calculations……we have
Rs
50O
g1
7.5nH
g2
3pF
g3
50O
V1
1 Vrms
1kHz

2
0
1
3

Butterworth BPF-Using Table
NI Multisim 10

Design a Butterworth BPF --Using Table
Design Issue

N=3

Center frequency fo=1.5GHz

3dB Bandwith= 200 MHz, f1=1.4GHz, f2=1.6 GH
Assumption:
LPF with cut-off frequency Wc=1 Rad/s,
Zs=ZL

Design a Butterworth BPF-Using Table
Step 1: LPP
Using values from table for Butterworth LPP filters
1592 . 0
2
1
1 2
· ·
· ·
π
π ω
c
c C
f
f
Hz
Z0
1O
g2
2H
g3
1F
g4
1O
V1
1 Vrms
1kHz

1 3
g1
1F
2
0

Design a Butterworth BPF-Using Table
Step 2:

LPP to bandpass transformation

Impedance demoralization
Step3: Frequency scaling and impedance demoralization
6
1 1
10 * 4 . 1 * 2 2 π π ω · · f
6
2 2
10 * 6 . 1 * 2 2 π π ω · · f
GHz f f f 497 . 1
2 1 0
· ·
133 . 0
0
1 2
·

· ∆
ω
ω ω
=79.58nH
=0.1414pF
=15.91pF
=0.7072nH

Design a Butterworth BPF-Using Table
Rs
50O
L3
79.58nH
C3
15.916pF
RL
50O
V1
1 Vrms
1kHz

1
C1
15.916pF
C2
141.4fF
4
L1
707.2pH
L2
70.72pH
2 3
0

Chebyshev Filter Design-
Using wizard

Chebyshev Filter Design-Using wizard

To design a filter using the Filter Wizard:
Select Tools/Circuit Wizards/Filter Wizard.

Chebyshev Filter Design-Using wizard

Select Chebyshev in the Type box. If you select
Chebyshev, the Pass Band Ripple box displays.

Enter desired filter parameters in
the box

Click Verify. If there are any
problems with your design, a
message displays below the diagram
in the Filter Wizard dialog box.

Click Build Circuit.

Chebyshev Filter Design-Using wizard
0 V
vin
750fO
rsource
0H
L1
0H
L2
0H
L3
5.684GF
C1
4.729GF
C2
50fO
rload
0
14 13
12
XBP1
IN OUT
11 15
0
Magnitude Response
Phase Response