Low-Pass Butterworth Filter

Design
NI Multisim 10
Low-Pass Butterworth Filter
R1
0O
C1
0F
L1
0H
L2
0H
R2
0O
2
V1
1 Vpk
1kHz

0
1
3

Open Multisim 10 and
start building the
Butterworth LPF like
in figure.

Press CTRL+W to
open the Component
Library.
Low-Pass Butterworth Filter Design

we will describe the design of a simple
low-pass Butterworth filter using
normalized prototype circuits.

Butterworth filter has a smooth passband
attenuation.
The procedure for designing a filter
based on a normalized prototype

Step1: you determine the order of filter that will
be needed to fulfill your design requirements.

Step2: list the element values that will produce a
lowpass filter of that order with a cutoff
frequency of 1 radian/second, with source and
load terminations of 1 Ohm connected to it.
These are the normalized prototype values

Step3: Formulas are used to scale those values
to the actual source and load impedances and to
the actual design cutoff frequency.
Low-Pass Butterworth Filter Design
500 MHz FX The frequency at which the out of
band attenuation must be met
30 dB A (dB) Out of band attenuation
50MHz Fr The frequency at which the specified
passband ripple occurs.
1 dB R(dB) Passband Ripple— The maximum
allowable ripple within the passband
100 MHz Fc Cutoff Frequency — the point at
which 3dB
Calculate order (N) of filter
Step1:

The cutoff frequency Fc, out of band attenuation, AdB,
and its frequency Fx, are related to the order of the filter
(n) by the following formula:

• The cutoff frequency Fc, passband attenuation, RdB,
and its frequency Fr, are related to the order of the filter
(n) by the following formula:

Based on the values we entered, the filter we are
designing will have to be of order n = 3 to meet all
specifications.
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ ·
n
C
X
db
F
F
A
2
1 log 10
n
R
R
C
F
F
2
1
10
1 10

,
`

.
|
− ·
table ---Step2:
RL=1 Ohm L3=1H C2=2F L1=1H Rs=1Ohm
R1
1O
R1
1O
L1
1H
L1
1H
C1
2F
Recall that the prototype values in the tables have been normalized with
respect to frequency and termination impedance. Note that RS = RL = 1
Ohm. If you used these values to build a filter, the cutoff frequency would be
1 Hertz, and your source and load impedances would have to be 1 Ohm.
Impedance and frequency scale
Step3:

The next step is to de-normalize the prototype element values,
scaling them up to the desired cutoff frequency and input/output
impedance. The transformation formulas that yield the appropriate
values for a desired cutoff frequency and source/load resistor value
are:
( )
L c
n
R F
C
C
π 2
·
( )
c
L n
F
R l
L
π 2
·
where:
C = the final capacitor value
L = the final inductor value
cn = low-pass prototype capacitor value from table
ln = a low-pass prototype inductor value from table
RL = the desired load resistor value, for impedance scaling
Fc = the desired cutoff frequency
2*pi*Fc= the desired cutoff radian frequency, for frequency scaling
Low-Pass Butterworth Filter
R1
50O
C1
63.662pF
L1
79.577nH
L2
79.577nH
R2
50O
2
V1
1 Vpk
1kHz

XBP1
IN OUT
1
0
3
0
Low-Pass Butterworth Filter
Phase Response
Magnitude Response