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Double-balanced Mixer Design

(MOS Gilbert Cell Mixer )

NI Multisim 10
Mixer design parameter
 Conversion Gain
 Noise Figure
 Isolation
 Linearity-
 1dB Compression point:
 Intermodulation (IM3) performance
(The IM3 performance is often summarised by giving the 3rd Order
Intercept point (IM3 Intercept)
Basic circuit of the Gilbert Cell Double
balanced mixer (DBM)
Design steps:
(1) Select a value for Rs. If we start with the LNA design ,
Rs will be realized by an inductor Ls.

(2) Using the design equations decide on the IM3 value

required to calculate the voltage overdrive (Vgs-VT).

(3) Calculate gm and check for compliance of mixer gain

with a suitable load resistance.

(4) Determine LO (local oscillator) switching W by selecting

minimum L allowed and assuming that the overdrive
voltage (Vgs-VT) will be between 0.2 and 0.4V.
Design Criteria
Parameter Specification Units
Frequency 2.45 to 2.85 GHz
Noise Figure (DSB) < 10 dBm
IIM3 Intercept Point (Input) >20 dBm
Voltage Gain >8 dB
Power consumption <100 mW

Source impedance 50 ohms

Load impedance 500 ohms
Voltage Supply ± 2.5 V
Design Step 1:

 Using the spice model data for the Agilent

CMOS14 0.5um
we have:
L = 0.6um
µ0 = 433 cm^2/(V*s)
Ө= 0.5
Rs = 10 ohms
VT = 0.67V
Vsat = 1.73E5 m/s
Design Step 2:
Useful design equations are:

Let’s make a table using

these equations. Using
Vod from 0.01 to 5V we
find the table below:
Design Step 2:

From table we can see that to achieve a minimum

IM3 value of 20dBm we require a VOT of 1V. As Vt for
this process is 0.67V, the value of Vgs will be (1-0.67) =
Steps 3+4:

gain converion to dB

Now with gm calculated we can W (Assuming we take

the minimum gate length to be 0.6um and assume a
current of 3mA) ie.

We can now run our first simulation by assuming all

devices have W = 233um and L = 0.6um, tail
current of 6mA, source resistors of 10 ohms and
load resistors of 500 ohms.
Design your own component
 Choose Tools/Component Wizard.
 Step 1:select simulation only
 Step 2: No of pins 3
Design your own component
 Step 3: Enter symbol information
 GO “Copy from DB”
 Chose your component
 Step 4:
Go on………
Design your own component
 Step5: Model name: RF_MOS_TEST
 Go select from DB
 Chose RF> P123 component
 Go Model data report
Design your own component
 Modify the value as we get from
calculation, like
 W=0.000233
 L=0.6u
 Kp=171E-6

and so on
Design your own component
 Step 7: Add family
 Select

group as
Design your own component
 From select your component (Ctrl+W)
from ‘User Database’
 Built the mixer ckt shown before.
Build your circuit VCC
Probe2,Probe2 VCC
V: R1 V: V(p-p):
V(p-p): 500O V(p-p): R2 V(rms):
V(rms): V(rms): 500O V(dc):
V(dc): V(dc): I:
5 I(p-p):
I: I:
I(p-p): I(p-p): I(rms):
I(rms): I(rms): I(dc):
I(dc): I(dc): Freq.:
Freq.: 2 Freq.:
U1 U2 U3 U4
1 Vpk
1kHz RF_MOS_Test
4 RF_MOS_Test RF_MOS_Test
7 RF_MOS_Test


V(dc): U5 U6
I(dc): RF_MOS_Test RF_MOS_Test
Freq.: 9

Simulation Results-Noise analysis
 Select Simulate/Analyses/Noise Analysis.
 Select the Analysis Parameters tab and set the following:
 Input noise reference source—vv2
 Output node—V(probe1)
 Reference node—V(0)
 Select the Frequency Parameters tab, and set the following:
 Sweep type—Decade
 Number of points per decade—5
 Vertical Scale—Logarithmic
Simulation Results-Noise analysis
 Select the Output tab, select the following variables for plot during
 onoise_rr1 & onoise_rr2
 Click Simulate. A chart displays in the Grapher with data similar to
the expected results.

This graph shows that

the noise voltage is
constant for lower
frequencies. For higher
frequencies the noise
voltage drops
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis

 Noticethat the maximum gain appears at

approximately 1GHz.
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis
 To set up Noise Figure Analysis using the circuit
shown, follow the steps listed below.
 Select Simulate/Analyses/Noise Figure Analysis.
 Under the Analysis Parameters tab, set the following:
 Input noise reference source to vv2 (which is the input AC
 Output node must be V(probe1)
 Reference node will default to V0
 Frequency must be set to 1e+009
 Temperature must be set to 27 degrees C.
 Click Simulate. The following displays.
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis

 Therefore,the Noise Figure for the circuit

is approximately –17 dB