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# Double-balanced Mixer Design

## (MOS Gilbert Cell Mixer )

NI Multisim 10
Mixer design parameter
 Conversion Gain
 Noise Figure
 Isolation
 Linearity-
 1dB Compression point:
 Intermodulation (IM3) performance
(The IM3 performance is often summarised by giving the 3rd Order
Intercept point (IM3 Intercept)
Basic circuit of the Gilbert Cell Double
balanced mixer (DBM)
Design steps:
(1) Select a value for Rs. If we start with the LNA design ,
Rs will be realized by an inductor Ls.

## (2) Using the design equations decide on the IM3 value

required to calculate the voltage overdrive (Vgs-VT).

## (4) Determine LO (local oscillator) switching W by selecting

minimum L allowed and assuming that the overdrive
voltage (Vgs-VT) will be between 0.2 and 0.4V.
Design Criteria
Parameter Specification Units
Frequency 2.45 to 2.85 GHz
Noise Figure (DSB) < 10 dBm
IIM3 Intercept Point (Input) >20 dBm
Voltage Gain >8 dB
Power consumption <100 mW

## Source impedance 50 ohms

Voltage Supply ± 2.5 V
Design Step 1:

##  Using the spice model data for the Agilent

CMOS14 0.5um
we have:
L = 0.6um
µ0 = 433 cm^2/(V*s)
Ө= 0.5
Rs = 10 ohms
VT = 0.67V
Vsat = 1.73E5 m/s
Design Step 2:
Useful design equations are:

## Let’s make a table using

these equations. Using
Vod from 0.01 to 5V we
find the table below:
Design Step 2:

## From table we can see that to achieve a minimum

IM3 value of 20dBm we require a VOT of 1V. As Vt for
this process is 0.67V, the value of Vgs will be (1-0.67) =
0.33V.
Steps 3+4:

gain converion to dB
Convert

## Now with gm calculated we can W (Assuming we take

the minimum gate length to be 0.6um and assume a
current of 3mA) ie.

## We can now run our first simulation by assuming all

devices have W = 233um and L = 0.6um, tail
current of 6mA, source resistors of 10 ohms and
 Choose Tools/Component Wizard.
 Step 1:select simulation only
 Step 2: No of pins 3
 Step 3: Enter symbol information
 GO “Copy from DB”
 Step 4:
Go on………
 Step5: Model name: RF_MOS_TEST
 Go select from DB
 Chose RF> P123 component
 Go Model data report
 Modify the value as we get from
calculation, like
 W=0.000233
 L=0.6u
 Kp=171E-6

and so on
 Select

group as
RF….
 From select your component (Ctrl+W)
from ‘User Database’
 Built the mixer ckt shown before.
5V
Probe2,Probe2 VCC
V:
V: R1 V: V(p-p):
V(p-p): 500O V(p-p): R2 V(rms):
V(rms): V(rms): 500O V(dc):
V(dc): V(dc): I:
5 I(p-p):
I: I:
Probe1,Probe1
I(p-p): I(p-p): I(rms):
I(rms): I(rms): I(dc):
I(dc): I(dc): Freq.:
Freq.: 2 Freq.:
U1 U2 U3 U4
V2
3
Probe4,Probe4
1 Vpk
1kHz RF_MOS_Test
4 RF_MOS_Test RF_MOS_Test
7 RF_MOS_Test

6

V:
V(p-p):
V(rms):
Probe5,Probe3
V(dc): U5 U6
V1
I:
BIPOLAR_VOLTAGE
I(p-p):
10
I(rms):
I(dc): RF_MOS_Test RF_MOS_Test
Freq.: 9
8
U7

RF_MOS_Test
0
Simulation Results-Noise analysis
 Select Simulate/Analyses/Noise Analysis.
 Select the Analysis Parameters tab and set the following:
 Input noise reference source—vv2
 Output node—V(probe1)
 Reference node—V(0)
 Select the Frequency Parameters tab, and set the following:
 FSTART—1Hz
 FSTOP—10GHz
 Number of points per decade—5
 Vertical Scale—Logarithmic
Simulation Results-Noise analysis
 Select the Output tab, select the following variables for plot during
simulation:
 onoise_rr1 & onoise_rr2
 Click Simulate. A chart displays in the Grapher with data similar to
the expected results.

## This graph shows that

the noise voltage is
constant for lower
frequencies. For higher
frequencies the noise
voltage drops
considerably.
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis

##  Noticethat the maximum gain appears at

approximately 1GHz.
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis
 To set up Noise Figure Analysis using the circuit
shown, follow the steps listed below.
 Select Simulate/Analyses/Noise Figure Analysis.
 Under the Analysis Parameters tab, set the following:
 Input noise reference source to vv2 (which is the input AC
Source).
 Output node must be V(probe1)
 Reference node will default to V0
 Frequency must be set to 1e+009
 Temperature must be set to 27 degrees C.
 Click Simulate. The following displays.
Simulation Results-Noise Figure Analysis

##  Therefore,the Noise Figure for the circuit

is approximately –17 dB