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Matrix for Business

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Matrices
A matrix consisting of m horizontal rows and n
vertical columns is called an mn matrix or a
matrix of size mn.
a12

.
.

.
.

a11
a
21
.

a12
.

...

a1n

...
...

.
.

... a2n
...
.

am1 am 2 ... amn

For the entry aij, we call i the row subscript and j


the column subscript.
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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra


Matrices

Example 1 Size of a Matrix

a. The matrix 1 2 0 has size 1


.3
1 6
b. The matrix 5 1 has size 3 . 2

9 4

c. The matrix 7 has size 1


. 1

7 2 4
1 3
d. The matrix 9 11 5 6 8 has size 3 5.

6 2 1 1 1

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Equality of Matrices
Matrices A = [aij ] and B = [bij] are equal if
they have the same size and aij = bij for
each i and j.

Transpose of a Matrix

A transpose matrix is denoted by AT.


If A 1 2 3, find AT .
4 5 6

Solution:

1 4
AT 2 5
3 6

Observe that

T T

A
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Matrix Addition and Scalar Multiplication

Matrix Addition
Sum A + B is the m n matrix obtained by adding
corresponding entries of A and B.

Example 1 Matrix Addition

a.
b.

1 2 7 2 1 7 2 2 8 0
3 4 6 4 3 6 4 4 3 8

5 6 3
0 5 3 6 0 8 6

1 2 2
3 4 1 is impossible as matrices are not of the same

size.

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Example 2 Matrix Subtraction

a. 2

6 6 2
2 6 6 2
4 8
4 1 4 1 4 4 1 1 8 0
3 0 2 3
3 1
3 2 0 3

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Example 3 Demand Vectors for an Economy

Demand for the consumers is


D1 3 2 5

D2 0 17 1

For the industries is


DC 0 1 4

DE 20 0 8

D3 4 6 12
DS 30 5 0

What is the total demand for consumers and the


industries?
Solution:

D1 D2 D3 3 2 5 0 17 1 4 6 12 7 25 18

Total:

DC DE DS 0 1 4 20 0 8 30 5 0 50 6 12

25 18 50 6 12 57 31 30
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Scalar Multiplication
Properties of Scalar Multiplication:

Subtraction of Matrices
Property of subtraction is A 1 A

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To multiply matrices A and B


look at their dimensions

m n

n p

MUST BE SAME
SIZE OF PRODUCT

If the number of columns of A does not


equal the number of rows of B then the
product AB is undefined.
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Multiplication of Matrices

The multiplication of matrices is easier shown than put


into words. You multiply the rows of the first matrix
with the columns of the second adding products

Find AB

3 2 1
A

0 4 1

11 1 3 5
3 3 2 2 2 2

2 4

B 1 3
3 1

First we multiply across the first row and down the


first column adding products. We put the answer in
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the first row, first column of the answer.

Find AB

3 2 1
A

0 4 1
55
AB
AB
1

2 4

B 1 3
3 1

77 7

4
442
311
00300

324424
4
33123 31111
7 1
11

Notice the sizes of A and B and the size of the product AB.
Now we multiply across the first
second
rowrow
andand
down
down
the the
second
first
We multiplied across first row and down first column
column column
second
and welland
putwell
the answer
put the in
answer
the second
first
in the
row,row,
second
second
firstrow,
so we put the answer in the first row, first column.
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column.column.
second

Now lets look at the product BA.

2 4
3 2 1
A

B 1 3
0 4 1
3 1 3132121213123223114134034141004410
9
4614
2312
ly
ip
ult
across
acrossthird
second
second
third
row
row
row
row
across
first
second
row
row
as
as
aswe
we
godown
down
we
as
we
go go
go
down
down
first
third
third
first
second
second
third
column:
column:
column:
column:
column:
second
column:
first
column:
column:

32

can m

23

12
12
12
12 2
66 666 12
2 22
wer
size of a n s

BA
BA
BA
BA
BA

3
3
3
14
14
14

4
4
4



99 10
4
10

Commuter's Beware!
Completely different than AB!

AB BA
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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra


Matrix Multiplication

Example 3 Matrix Products


a.
b.
c.

4
1 2 3 5 32
6
1
1 6
2 1 6 2 12

3
3 18

1 3
2 2

0
1

0
1
2 1

0 4 2

2 5 3 11
3 4 1 0
2 7 4 10

a11b11 a12 b21 a11b12 a12 b22

b22
a
b

a
b
a
b

a
b
22 21
21 12
22 22
21 11

d. a11 a12 b11 b12


a
b
a
22
21
21

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Example 5 Cost Vector

Given the price and the quantities, calculate the total


cost.
7 units of A
P 2 3 4

Solution:
The cost vector is

Q 5 units of B
11 units of C

7
PQ 2 3 4 5 73
11

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Exercise Cost Vector

Given the prices (in dollars per unit) for three


textbooks are represented by the price vector. A
university bookstore orders these books in the
quantities given by the column vector Q. find the total
cost (in dollars) of the purchase.
P 26.25 34.75 28.50

250
Q 325
175

22,843.75
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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra


Matrix Multiplication

Example 7 Associative Property

If

1 2

3 4

3 0 1

1 1 2

compute ABC in two ways.


Solution 1:

1 2
A BC

3 4

1 0
C 0 2
1 1

Solution
2:
1 0

3 0 1

1 1 2 0 2

1 1

1 2 2 1 4 9

3 4 3 4 18 13

Note that A(BC) = (AB)C.

1
1 2 3 0 1
0
AB C


3 4 1 1 2 1

1 0
1 2 5

0
2

13

1 1

0
2

1
4 9
18 13

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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra


Matrix Multiplication

Example 11 Matrix Operations Involving I and O


If

3 2
A

1 4

51

2
5

1
10

3
10

1 0
I

0 1

0 0

0 0

compute each of the following.

Solution:
1 0 3 2
2 2
a. I A

0
1
1
4

3 2
3 2 2 0 3 6
1 0



b. 3 A 2I 3

1
4
0
1
1
4
0
2
3
6

3 2 0 0
O

1 4 0 0

c. AO

3 2 52
d. AB
1
1 4 10

51
3
10

1 0
I

0 1

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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra


Matrix Multiplication

Example 13 Matrix Form of a System Using Matrix Multiplication

2 x1 5 x 2 4
Write the system
8 x1 3 x 2 7

in matrix form by using matrix multiplication.


Solution:
If
2 5
A

8
3

x1
X
x2

4
B
7

then the single matrix equation is


AX B
2 5 x1 4
8 3 x 7

2
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Example 9 Raw Materials and Cost

A contractor accepted orders for five


ranch-style houses, seven Cape Cod style
houses, and nine colonial style houses.
This order represented by:
The raw materials that go into each type of
houses are steel, wood, glass, paint, and
labor shown in the matrix R.

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Suppose that the contractor want to know


how many amount of each raw material
needed to fulfill the orders. The we should
compute the matrix QR.
QR 128 451 236 143 349

The contractor also interested in the costs


for the materials for each, shown in matrix
C

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Then, the cost of each type of house is given by


2500
matrix:

5 20 16 7 17 1200
75850
RC 7 18 12 9 21 800 81550

6 25 8 5 13 150
71650
1500

Consequently, the total costs of materials for


ranch style $75,850; cape Cod style $ 81,550;
and colonial style $71,650
The total cost of raw materials for all the houses
is:
75850
QRC Q RC 5 7 9 81550 1,594,950
71650

The total costs is $ 1,594,950

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Inverses 2x2 Matric


When matrix AB = I, A is an inverse of B
and A is invertible.
Example 1 Inverse of a Matrix
3 5
B

1
2

2 5
A

1 3

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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra

Inverses
Find matrix :

ad-bc = IAI=
determinant A

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Chapter 3: Matrix Algebra

Inverses
Find matrix :

2 5
A

1
3

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Exercises
Find its inverse

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Inverses 3x3
Find the minor of Matric A:
Eliminate the first row and
first coloumn, get IM11I

IM11I = a22xa33 a23xa32

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Now do the adjoint, that is the transpose


of matrix cofactor M
Then, do the determinant

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Example inverse matric 3x3


A=

1 0 0
0 3 0

0 0 4
K=

12 0 0
0

4
0

0
0 3

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12 0 0
0

4
0

0
0 3

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A -1

0
0
1
0 1/ 3 0

0
0
1 / 4

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Find its inverse


7 0 2
0 1 0

3 0 1

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Quiz no.1
Jababeka property accepted orders for five ranch-style
houses, two Cape Cod style houses, and four colonial
style houses. This order represented by:
Q 5 2 4

The raw materials that go into each type of houses are


steel, wood, glass, paint, and labor shown in the matrix
R.
5 20 16 7 15
R 7 15 10 8 20
6 25 8 5 12

The contractor also interested in the costs for the


materials for each, shown in matrix C

2000
1200

C 800

200

1500

Using matrix multiplication, compute the total cost of raw


materials. (in dollar0
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