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DESIGN OF

SEWERAGE SYSTEM
BY
G. KRISHNAN

Design of Sewerage System


Sewage Mixture of water and waste products
Types of Sewage:
Domestic sewage - consists of liquid wastes originating
from urinals, latrines, bath-rooms, kitchen sinks, wash
basins etc. of the residential, commercial or institutional
buildings.
Industrial Sewage - consists of liquid wastes originating
from the industrial processes of various industries, such as
dyeing, paper making, brewing etc.
The sum of domestic and industrial sewage, may be
termed as sanitary sewage or simply sewage

SEWAGE COMPOSITION
SEW AGE
L iq u id
9 9 .7 to 9 9 .9 %

S o lid s
0 .1 to 0 .3 %

M ic r o - o r g a n is m s
in m illio n s

O r g a n ic 7 0 %

I n o r g a n ic - 3 0 %

( d e r iv e d f r o m liv in g th in g s )

C a rb o h y d ra te
25%

P r o t e in s
65%

F a ts
10%

G r it

S a lt s

M e t a ls

TYPICAL WASTE WATER SYSTEM


Raw Sewage
Collection System

Reuse for
industrial
application

Pumping
station

Raw Sewage
pumping main

Sewage Treatment
Plant

Disposal to water
bodies

Design of Sewerage System


Difference in the Design of water supply pipes and sewer pipes:
1.The water supply pipes carry pure water without containing any
kind of solid particles, either organic or inorganic in nature. The
sewage, on the other hand, does contain such particles in
suspension and the heavier of these particles may settle down at
the bottom of the sewers, as and when the flow velocity reduces,
thus ultimately resulting in the clogging of the sewers.
2.The water supply pipes carry water under pressure, and hence
within certain limits, they may be carried up and down the hills
and the valleys, whereas the sewer pipes carry sewage as
gravity conduits and they must therefore be laid at continuous
gradient in the downward direction up to the outfall point, from
where it will be lifted up, treated and disposed of.

Hydraulics of Sewers
MANNINGS FORMULA

V = [ (1/n) (R2/3 S1/2)]


Where S = Bed slope of the sewer (1 in 100)
D = internal diameter of sewer in mm
R = Hydraulic mean depth in m
= Area / wetted Perimeter
V = velocity in mps
n = Mannings coefficient of roughness

Mannings Coefficients (n)


Values of an full depth for
S.No.

Pipe Material
Good interior
surface condition

Salt glazed stoneware pipes

0.012

Fair interior surface


condition *
0.014

Cement concrete pipes

0.013

0.015

Cast iron pipes

0.012

0.013

Brick, unglazed sewers/drains

0.013

0.015

Asbestos cement

0.011

0.012

Plastic (smooth) pipes

0.011

0.011

Partially filled Circular Sewer Section

Hydraulic Elements of Partial flow Sewers


d/D

v/V

q/Q

1.0

1.000

1.000

0.9

1.124

1.066

0.8

1.140

0.968

0.7

1.120

0.838

0.6

1.072

0.671

0.5

1.000

0.500

0.4

0.902

0.337

0.3

0.776

0.196

0.2

0.615

0.088

0.1

0.401

0.021

Design Criteria

Diameter of the sewers and the slope should be decided


to meet the following conditions

Minimum size of the sewer should be not less than 150mm.


If any future development is anticipated beyond the head reach,
the starting sewer can be of 200mm diameter.

The velocity of flow and slopes (grade) of sewers are


very important criteria in the sewer design.
A self-cleansing velocity of 60cm/s and 80cm/s should
be maintained at the present peak flow, and at the
ultimate peak flow respectively.
Sewer section should be designed to run at partial full
condition always not exceeding 0.80 full depth at the
ultimate peak flow.

Velocity of flow in the Sewers

Should neither be less than 0.3mps nor greater than 3mps.


Optimum velocity of flow for self-cleansing, is 0.6mps for
the present flow.
Larger velocity will involve steeper slope and extra
excavation.
Some important facts about velocity of flow are as follow:

Velocity of flow is equal to full flow velocity when the flow is half full,
Velocity of flow is more than full flow velocity when the flow is more
than half full,
Velocity of flow is rapidly decreasing when the flow is less than half
full,
Velocity of flow is maximum when the depth of flow is 0.82 D,
The carrying capacity of the sewer is the maximum when the depth
of flow is approximately 0.9D.

Velocity of flow has to be checked for minimum self


cleansing velocity whenever the sewer is flowing less than
half full,

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES


The sewer pipes are normally circular in section, although
some other sections such as basket handle shape, egg
shape, horse shoe shape, parabolic shape, semicircular
shape, semi elliptical shape, rectangular shape etc.

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES

FORCES ACTING ON SEWER PIPES


The structural design of the sewer pipes should be such
as to enable them to withstand the various forces likely to
come on them. The following forces generally come into
play in the sewer pipes:
1.Internal

pressure of sewage
2.Pressure due to external loads
3.Temperature stresses
4.Flexural stresses.

SEWER MATERIALS
Vitrified clay (or stone ware), cement concrete, asbestos
cement and cast iron are the most common materials
used for constructing sewer pipes. While selecting a
particular material for constructing sewer pipes, the
important factors which must be considered are:
i.Resistance

to corrosion
ii.Resistance to abrasion
iii.Strength and durability
iv.Light weight
v.Imperviousness
vi.The economy and cost
vii.Hydraulically efficient

MANHOLES
Manholes are masonry or R.C.C. chambers, constructed at
suitable intervals along the sewer lines, for providing access
into them.
The manholes, thus help in joining sewer lengths, and also help
in their inspection, cleaning and maintenance.
Location and spacing of Manholes:
The manholes are generally provided at every bend, junction,
change of gradient, or change of sewer diameter. Unless there
are practical difficulties, the sewer line between two manholes
is laid straight with even gradient.
Even when the sewer line runs straight, the manholes are
provided at regular intervals.
The spacing between the manholes, in such a case, however,
depends mainly upon the size of the sewer line.

The manhole spacing's, generally adopted, on straight


sewer reaches, are given below:
S.No.

Size of the Sewer

Recommended Spacing's of
Manholes on straight reaches of
sewer lines as per IS 1742-1960

Dia up to 0.3 m

45 m

Dia up to 0.6 m

75 m

Dia up to 0.9 m

90 m

Dia up to 1.2 m

120 m

Dia up to 1.5 m

250 m

Dia greater than 1.5 m

300 m

CLASSIFICATION OF MANHOLES
Depending of their depth, the manholes may be classified as:
i.Shallow

manholes is about 0.7 to 0.9 m in depth, and is


constructed at the start of a branch sewer or at places, which
are not subjected to heavy traffic. Such a manhole is provided
with a light cover at its top, and is called an inspection chamber.
ii.Normal manholes is about 1.5 m in depth and is constructed
either square (1m x 1m) or rectangular (1.2m x 1m) in cross
section. Its section is not changed with depth, as its done in a
deep manhole.
iii.Deep manholes is having depth more than 1.5m. The
section of such a manhole is generally not kept the same. The
size in the upper portion is reduced by providing an offset as
shown in the figure below.

ORDINARY MANHOLE

DEEP MANHOLE

CIRCULAR DROP MANHOLE

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Select sewage treatment and disposal location


depending up on the availability of land or water
courses,
Divide the town into number of zones ,
Factors to be considered in zoning:

Special features such as railway line, NH, river etc., can


be treated as zone boundaries since gravity sewer
crossing of these features is expensive.
An area of the town having a descending slope can
form a zone
To restrict the depth of cutting to the pre-determined
level (5 to 6m) since excavation under ground water
table condition and / or in hard rock is difficult and
expensive.
The site is available for the pumping station.
Exceeding the maximum depth of cutting for short
lengths to avoid introduction of lift station is permitted.

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Decide the location of the sewage pumping station


(SPS) for each of the zones at the lowest elevation
and also considering the site available.
SPS shall have facility for pretreatment to remove
floating large particles and grit; about 30m x 30m land
may be required.
When adequate extent of land is not available lift
station can be provided instead of SPS.
Lift station is a small pumping station without facility
for pretreatment

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Main pumping station (MPS) is located nearer to the STP


site. MPS will collect sewage from all zones and pump to
STP
SPS of one of the zones nearer to STP may be converted
as MPS
Prepare a map of sewer network by aligning the sewer
lines in roads along the natural slope of the terrain to
drain into the collection well,
Dont align sewers against the slope and across the
ridges
In exceptional case, aligning across a small ridge is
permitted

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM - contd

Adequate number of Manholes are necessary to facilitate


cleaning

Maximum spacing for small diameter sewers:


Maximum spacing for larger diameter sewers:

30m
60m to 100m

Mark the positions of the manholes in the sewer layout


map.
Assess the number of anticipated HSCs; Ensure at least
50% of the properties will have connections
Assume correct Peak Factor (based on the contributing
population to the section under consideration) to assess
Peak Flow. Peak factor of 3 is preferable for all sections.
Sewers are designed as a gravity system for partial flow
condition only

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM -Contd.

Consider subsoil condition and level of ground water


table and fix the maximum depth of cutting, which may
be 5 to 6m,
For the assumed zoning, by rough calculation
considering the maximum length of the zone and
assuming a grade of 1 in 200 calculate the depth of
excavation and check with the maximum depth of
cutting
If the calculated depth is within the permissible depth of
excavation proceed further for the detailed designing of
sewers adopting the zoning.
If the calculated depth of cutting exceeds the
permissible cutting, revise the zoning of the town, by
shifting the location of pumping station or introducing
additional pumping station/lift stations.

Lift stations

Lift stations are required to elevate and transport sewage in


sewerage systems when continuation of gravity flow is no longer
feasible.
In flat terrain, area close to seashore, sewers enroute to a
pumping/treatment plant may increase in depth to the point where
it is impractical to continue gravity flow economically because of
the high cost of excavation.
Here, a lift station can be installed to lift the sewage to the Bellmouth chamber in a sewer at a higher level
Lift station is an enlarged size MH fitted with submersible pump
with float control operation
Provide Submersible non-clogging pump of 2 2.5 DWF (2Nos., 1
No. stand by)
Lift station may be adopted when the design peak flow is less than
1000 lpm
Overflow arrangement from the lift station to the nearby drain is
necessary to avoid surcharging of sewers

LIFT STATIONS

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM -Contd.

Sufficient grades should be adopted to maintain a


minimum self-cleansing velocity

0.6mps for the present peak flow


0.8mps for the ultimate peak flow

Minimum depth of cutting

Maximum depth of cutting

Use Mannings formula for computing velocity and flow


in the section

800mm to 1000mm; Minimum


depth is fixed in such a way to have the house sewer is safely
connected to the street sewer. Minimum depth should also provide
necessary cover to the sewer to protect it from load from the traffic
5.0 to 6.0m depending up on
water table condition and type of substrata

Steps in the design of Sewerage system

Review the performance of the existing sewerage systems in


operation
Insufficient flow due to lack of connections leading to silting and
clogging in sewers
Flow of sewage in the open drains even after installation of
sewerage system and fail to protect the environment (land and
water) from pollution and make them for beneficial uses
Inadequate O&M of STP (Even simple maintenance of WSP is not
carried out properly)
Study the various options available with reference to capital and
O&M cost
Collection systems: 1.Conventional sewerage system
2.Small bore sewerage system
Sewage treatment: 1.Conventional methods
2. Low-cost methods
Select Appropriate collection system and Sewage treatment method

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

The sewage generated from an area is collected through


a sewer network consists of sewers and conveyed to the
sewage pumping station for onward conveyance to the
sewage treatment plant for further treatment and
disposal.
The sewer network is formulated with the help of
contours. Generally, the sewage pumping station (SPS) is
located at low-lying area of the catchments.
In addition to the contour levels, the distance of the
farthest point of the network from the SPS is also taken
into consideration while deciding the number of subcatchment areas or zones of the sewage collection
system.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

After formulation of the zones with networks,


manholes are marked at every 30 metres apart
from junctions and change in directions.
The network consists of trunk sewer, main sewer,
submain, branch, sub-branch and laterals etc.
and the line numbers were given accordingly.
Manhole numbers are assigned based on the line
number.
The nomenclatures of manhole numbers are
generally as per the guidelines specified by
Central Public Health & Environmental
Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) Manual.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

The Sewer system has been designed by forming


segments comprising of 3-4 manholes.
A contributory area is assigned to each segment
depending on various types of land use in the
segment.
The contributing area for the segment is then
converted to an Equivalent Residential Area (ERA).
The ward density is applied while calculating
segment-wise population based on contributing
ERA.
This exercise is repeated for whole network to
arrive segment - wise population.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

Contributory area of a segment of a stretch of 100 m


length of sewer is calculated. This area is then converted
into Equivalent Residential Area (ERA) by applying
suitable factors to various land uses as indicated below:

=
=
=
=

1.0
0.25
0.25
0.1

The total ERA therefore is calculated as:

Residential Area (RA)


Institutional
Commercial Area
Industrial

ERA = 1.0 x Residential area + 0.25 x Institutional area + 0.25 x


Commercial area + 0.1 x Industrial area

Multiplying ERA by population density of the


corresponding ward gives the number of persons in that
contributing area.
A return of 80% of the rate of water supply is treated as
waste water generation from each individual.
Further, infiltration of ground water into the system is also
considered.

Design Approach -Contd.

Consider subsoil condition and level of ground water table


and fix the maximum depth of cutting, which may be 5 to
6m,
For the assumed zoning, mark the trunk sewer alignment
By rough calculation assuming an average grade of 1 in
200 calculate the depth of excavation and check with the
maximum depth of cutting
If the calculated depth is within the permissible depth of
excavation proceed further for the detailed designing of the
collection system adopting the zoning.
If the calculated depth of cutting exceeds the permissible
cutting, revise the zoning of the town, by shifting the
location of pumping station or introducing additional
pumping station/lift stations.
Mark the positions of the manholes in the sewer network
map.

Numbering of Manholes and Sewers

Manholes are generally numbered


from the pumping station end
backwards along the Main sewer.
Numbering of manholes and
sewers can be done in many
ways.
The sewer shall be designated by
the manhole to which it joins.
Numbering manholes is furnished
in Fig.
In case of design of sewer
network
using
computer
programme,
manholes
are
considered as nodes.
Node numbers are assigned in
any sequence and the sewer is
designated
as
a
link
with
connecting node numbers.

SEWER NETWORK AND DATA

G.L. @ Man Holes


1 92.15m
2 92.35m
3 92.50m
4 92.80m
5 92.90m
6 93.10m
7 93.20m
8 93.20m
9 93.65m
3A 92.60m
3B 92.65m
4A 92.90m
4B 93.05m
4C 93.10m
7A 93.60m
7B 93. 65m

HYDRAULIC CALCULATION TABLE OF SEWER NETWORK


Section

Start End

Full Bore
discharg
LINE Cumulative
Sewerage
NO Population Generation(ltr/ e 2040
Dia (mm)
sec)

2010 2040 2010

Slope
1 in
(Mtr)

Slope

Lengt Vf from
mannings QF (lps)
h
formula

Q/Qf

2040

d/Df

v/Vf v (m/s) Q/Qf

d/Df

2010

v/Vf

v (m/s)

2040
0.6

0.8

GROUND
LEVEL (m)

Start

End

INVERT LEVEL
(m)
EDRC
Start

End

0.8

A467 A638

A1001

91490

15043 328.79
540.626 675.782 1000
5
2

1.00

2030

0.00049
26

240

0.801

628.572
0.53
8

0.58

0.874

0.6998
0.997 0.7985
78.729 78.529 72.381 72.499
0.87 0.7889
4
3
7

A638 A637

A1002

85140

13221 305.97
475.148 593.935 1000
5
2

1.00

1850

0.00054
05

86

0.839

658.442
0.47
4

0.54

0.842

0.7062
0.943 0.7915
78.529 78.596 72.499 72.546
0.69 0.6867
5
7
6

A637 A573

A1003

17730 50990 84.956 183.245 229.057

0.60

1000

293

0.812

229.354
0.38
3

0.478 0.789
0.6405 0.8
6
2

A1004

15770 45360 75.565 181.125 226.406

60

0.812

229.354
0.33
3

0.442 0.754 0.6124


0.974 0.7910
78.612 78.793 73.239 73.299
0.79 0.7444
9
6
2
7
5

A575 A576

A1005

15250 43850 73.073 175.095 218.869

600

0.60

980

0.00102
04

18

0.820

231.682
0.32
9

0.435 0.747
0.966 0.7921
78.793 78.876 73.299 73.317
0.6129 0.76 0.7278
7
6
2
2

A576 A578

A1006

14790 42530 70.869 169.825 212.281

600

0.60

960

0.00104
17

146

0.828

234.083
0.31
8

0.428 0.740 0.6135


0.957 0.7932
78.876 79.304 73.317 73.469
0.73 0.7111
6
7
4
7
8

A578 A579

A1007

13270 38120 63.585 152.215 190.269

600

0.60

850

0.00117
65

73

0.880

248.769
0.26
7

0.391
0.6197
0.704
0.62
7
2

A579 A581

A1008

11210 32220 53.715 128.656 160.820

500

0.50

800

93

0.804

157.692
0.35
8

0.457 0.768 0.6174


0.983 0.7900
79.613 80.268 73.655 73.772
0.82 0.7611
1
4
3
2
3

A581 A582

A1009

10470 30100 50.169 120.191 150.239

500

0.50

760

0.00131
58

132

0.824

161.789
0.32
4

0.435 0.747 0.6163


0.963 0.7941
80.268 80.298 73.772 73.945
0.75 0.7222
7
6
3
3
5

A582 A583

A1010

9460 27170 45.329 108.491 135.614

450

0.45

710

0.00140
85

0.795

126.388
0.36
6

0.464 0.775 0.6165


0.994 0.7907
80.298 80.298 73.995 74.005
0.86 0.7833
3
4
1
5
1

A583 A584

A1011

9430 27100 45.185 108.212 135.265

450

0.45

710

0.00140
85

138

0.795

126.388
0.36
6

0.464 0.775 0.6165


0.994 0.7907
80.298 79.766 74.005 74.199
0.86 0.7833
3
4
1
5
1

A584 A585

A1012

7400 21270 35.458 84.932 106.165

450

0.45

580

0.00172
41

209

0.880

139.837
0.26
3

0.391
0.910 0.8011
79.766 79.617 74.199 74.560
0.704 0.6193 0.61 0.6333
7
7
3

A585 A586

A1013

6240 17940 29.900 85.963 107.453

450

0.45

560

0.00178
57

46

0.895

142.312
0.22
5

0.358
0.5980
0.910 0.8153
79.617 79.933 74.560 74.642
0.668
0.61 0.6333
3
3
7
1

A586 A587

A1014

5120 14740 24.533 70.629

400

0.40

490

0.00204
08

53

0.885

111.130
0.23
2

0.366
0.5990
0.923 0.8167
79.933 79.786 74.692 74.800
0.677
0.64 0.6533
7
1
1
5

A587 A588

A1015

4010 17550 19.215 84.094 105.117

400

0.40

390

0.00256
41

76

0.992

124.565
0.16
6

0.308
0.6089
0.614
0.68
3
4

A573 A575

600

0.001
600

0.60

1000

0.001

0.00125

88.286

0.75

0.64

0.68

0.977 0.7933
78.596 78.612 72.946 73.239
5
3

0.914 0.8052
79.304 79.613 73.469 73.555
8
9

0.939 0.9318
79.786 79.896 74.800 74.995
6
6

PROBLEMS IN THE SEWERS

The settleble solids are likely to settle in the sewer when


the flow is very less and the velocity is less than self
cleaning velocity.
Settled solids should be flushed at least once in a day by
maintaining self cleansing velocity
Self cleansing velocity could be achieved only during the
peak flow.
If self cleansing velocity is not achieved in any section of
the sewers even with peak flow, artificially self cleansing
velocity should be achieved by flushing

TYPICAL SEWAGE PUMPING STATION

TYPICAL SEWAGE PUMPING STATION

Survey and Investigation

Survey and investigation are pre-requisites both for


framing the feasibility report and the preparation of
sewerage project
The engineering designs are dependent on the
correctness of the data collected and its proper
evaluation
The survey for data collection includes the following two
steps

Collection of basic information


Project surveys

Basic information should be collected on the following


aspects

Physical Aspects
Development Aspects
Other Aspects

Physical Aspects

Topography or elevation difference of the town and the


adjoining area for deciding location of disposal works
Subsoil conditions, depth of groundwater table and its
fluctuations.
In the absence of any records, preliminary data should be
collected by putting at least 3 trial bores or trial pits per
hectare
Underground facilities like storm water drains, house
service connections of water supply/drainage, electrical
and telephone cables, and
Location of streets and adjoining areas likely to be merged
Possible sources of information are:

Existing maps and plans from revenue or town surveys or Survey


of India
Topographical map of survey of India
Aerial photographs
Existing instrumental surveys by Municipalities

Development Aspects

Type of land use such as commercial, industrial, residential


and recreational
Census population, density of population, trends of
population growth
Types and number of industries and location of their
wastewater discharge points
Rainfall details
Details of existing drainage and sewerage facilities
Basis of design and information on the maintenance of the
existing sewerage system if available; effluent disposal sites
and their conditions
Possible sources of information

Census records
Town and metropolitan Master plans and Land use plans
Meteorological data
Pollution Control Board

Other Aspects

Changes in political boundaries by merger of adjacent


communities
Feasibility of multi-municipal systems
Prevailing water pollution prevention regulations, and
other rules relating to discharge of industrial and domestic
wastes
Present status of the government or municipal authority
sponsoring the project, its capacity, and adequacy to
satisfactorily implement and maintain the project
The impacts likely to be caused to the community during
execution and feasibility of minimizing them
Possible sources of information

National Acts
State and Municipal Laws and Byelaws

Project Surveys

Preliminary Project Surveys


Collect data on capacity required, basic arrangement and size,
physical features affecting general layout
Data on cost and the escalation of prices of basic materials and
methods of financing;
All the basic data obtained must be reliable but need not be in
precise and detail
Detailed Project Surveys
These surveys form the basis for the engineering design as well as
for the preparation of plans and specifications
Must be precise and contains contours of all areas to be served
with all details that will facilitate the designer
Include network of bench marks and traverse surveys to identify
the nature and extent of the existing underground structures
Construction Surveys
Establish all control points such as base lines and bench marks for
sewer alignment and grade with reference to permanent objects

Data to be collected in a detailed survey

The layout plan of the town with contours showing the


roads and drainage courses,
The municipal map showing ward boundaries
Levels along the road at interval of 10m.
The levels at street junctions, lowest plinth level of the
building and the sullage outlet
The width of the street and the road formed
The location and extent of vacant municipal sites
available within the town as well as on the periphery of
the town for locating pumping station and STP.
The availability of Revenue poramboke land on the
outskirt of the town and/or dry lands at reasonable cost
for locating the treatment plant and disposal works,

Data to be collected in a detailed survey -Contd

The hydrology of water courses if any, with details of


minimum flow and maximum water level
The level of groundwater table in summer and winter
and subsoil conditions, collected from the existing open
wells,
The subsoil particulars along the alignment of the
sewers by putting trial pits and trial bores,
Population of the town as per the latest census and
present population,
Future population estimated based on other projects
such as water supply project or by forecast method,

Data to be collected in a detailed survey -Contd

The details of existing water supply and proposed


water supply improvements projects if any.
Elevations of the sills of building and the depth at
which the house drainage is existing
Character, age and condition of the pavement of
street/road
The details of underground facilities like cables of
telephone and electricity;
When good information is lacking, it may be advisable
to have pits excavated in streets to obtain the require
data.