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DEFINING

RESEARCH

RESEARCH
can be defined as the search for
knowledge or any systematic
investigation to establish facts.
The primary purpose for applied
research (as opposed to basic
research) is discovering,
interpreting, and the
development of methods and
systems for the advancement

RESEARCH

of human knowledge on a
wide variety of scientific
matters of our world and
the universe. Research can
use the scientific method,
but need not do so.

RESEARCH

the systematic process of


collecting and analyzing
information to increase
our understanding of the
phenomenon under study.

RESEARCH

It is the function of the


researcher to contribute
to the understanding of
the phenomenon and to
communicate that
understanding to others.

RESEARCH

Literature review
any gathering of
data, information and
facts for the
advancement of
knowledge

RESEARCH
performing a methodical
study in order to prove a
hypothesis or answer a
specific question. Finding
a definitive answer is the
central goal of any
experimental process

RESEARCH
Research must be
systematic and
follow a series of
steps and a rigid
standard protocol.

RESEARCH

Scientific research must be


organized and undergo
planning, including
performing literature
reviews of past research
and evaluating what
questions need to be
answered.

Research is an
ORGANIZED and
SYSTEMATIC way of
FINDING ANSWERS
to QUESTIONS.

ORGANIZED

in that there is a structure or


method in going about doing
research. It is a planned
procedure, not a
spontaneous one. It is
focused and limited to a
specific scope.

SYSTEMATIC
because there is a definite set of
procedures and steps which you
will follow. There are certain
things in the research process
which are always done in order
to get the most accurate results.

FINDING
is the end of all research. Whether
it is the answer to a hypothesis or
ANSWERS

even a simple question, research


is successful when we find
answers. Sometimes the answer is
no, but it is still an answer.

QUESTIONS

are central to research. If there is


no question, then the answer is of
no use.
Research is focused on relevant,
useful, and important questions.
Without a question, research has
no focus, drive, or purpose.

WAYS OF KNOWING:
EPISTEMOLOGY

EPISTEMO
LOGY
the branch of
philosophy that
studies the nature
of knowledge, in
particular its
foundations,
scope, and validity

INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE
AUTHORITATIVE
KNOWLEDGE
LOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE

It rains on Tuesdays.
If a bag contained 70 blue
candies, 20 pink candies,
and 10 yellow candies, the
next person to draw out a
candy would probably get
a blue one.

A persons name affects


how other people
perceive that persons
personality or attitude.
Dinosaurs existed on
earth before man, and
that they are all extinct.

If a piece of stone, and a


piece of paper were to be
thrown off the fourth
floor; then, the stone
will hit the ground first.
The way to a persons
heart is through his
stomach.

If you live with a chainsmoker, your lungs are sootfilled, black and damaged.
If one person were to stare
straight up into the sky in the
midst of many people, other
people will do the same, even
though they do not know why.

INTUITIVE (when coming up with


an initial idea for research)
AUTHORITATIVE (when reviewing
the professional literature)
LOGICAL (when reasoning from
findings to conclusions)
EMPIRICAL (when engaging in
procedures that lead to these
findings)

KINDS OF
RESEARCH

BASIC
RESEARCH

is concerned with knowledge for


the sake of theory. Its design is
not controlled by the practical

APPLIED
RESEARCH

is concerned with showing how


the findings can be applied or
summarized into some type of

PRACTICAL
RESEARCH

applies the findings of research


to a specific "practical" teaching
situation.

KINDS OF
RESEARCH

AN ABSTRACT: A
summary of a longer
text, especially of an
academic article.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Introduction. In this paper
present a comparative analysis
of three samples of teachers
from Coimbra. Barcelona and
Murcia that provides insight into
the importance teachers attach
to disruptive behavior and how
different perspectives and
values affect their daily work

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Method. This research is framed
within a quantitative empiricalanalytic design. It is a descriptive
study that compares the data
obtained from applying a
questionnaire to a sample of 146
school teachers from elementary
and secondary education in three
European cities: Barcelona, Murcia
and Coimbra.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
This unobtrusive
questionnaire was
developed by the authors to
minimize language
distortions.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Results. Results consistently
confirm the trend proposed
in the studys hypothesis. In
general, inappropriate social
behaviors receive stronger
ratings than behaviors that
hinder instruction.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Except in the case of disobedience,
which receives the highest score.
Male teachers tend to assigns
higher scores to instruction-related
behaviors than do their female
colleagues. and there is a trend
toward stronger ratings for
instruction-related behaviors with
increasing years of teaching
experience.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Discussion and Conclusion. The
teachers sampled in this study show
greater concern for the general
social transgressions that occur in
the class group, relegating
disruptive behaviors to positions of
lesser importance, despite their
rigorously-demonstrated
implications in teaching-learning
processes.

A Comparative Study of the


Seriousness
Attributed to Disruptive Classroom
Behaviors
Moreover, the variable years of
experience appears to exert a
moderating effect on the concern for
inappropriate social behaviors,
nearly equating their seriousness
with that of instruction-related
behaviors. This leveling effect is
observed more strongly with male
teachers than with their female
colleagues.

QUESTIONS:
1. What was being researched in this
paper?
2. What type of research study did
this team employ?
3. What method did they use? What
design frame?

QUESTIONS:
4. What were the results? What were more
important for teachers to correct?
5. What is of the highest importance for
the teachers concern?
6. Who exhibit this type of value system
more, men or women teachers?
7. What is the relevance of this study to
the current society? Why do you think
was it made?

Scientific Research: ProblemSolving Process


Formulation and development of
the problem for investigation

Selection and use of one or more


appropriate methods for gathering
evidence
Reporting & implementation of
the results

METHODS OF RESEARCH

Frederick Whitney (1950) classifies methods


of research into eight categories:

THE DESCRIPTIVE TYPE


Fact-finding
with
adequate
interpretatio
n

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH:

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH:

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH:

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH:

THE HISTORICAL TYPE


interprets past
trends of attitudes,
events or facts
What social facts
have in common,
how they are
repeated, and the
generalizations

THE EXPERIMENTAL
TYPE
Controlled
observation of
change and
development
Investigator seeks to
evaluate the
influence of a
variable on the
subject/environment

Necessary procedures or elements


in an experimental situation:

1. Selection of two or more equivalent groups of


subjects
2. Independent variable -> aspect that the
experimenter controls
-> it is independent because it is not
affected
by anything else in the experiment
3. Dependent variable -> aspect that an
experimenter
expects to change as a result
of experimental intervention

If people are anxious, then


they will want to be with
other people (Schacter,
1959)
Misery Loves Company
Hypothesis -> there is a
potential relationship
between 2 variables:
ANXIETY & AFFILIATION

EXPERIMENT
1. Subjects were brought into a room
with an experimenter wearing hornrimmed glasses and a white lab
coat
2. He introduced himself as Dr. Gregor
Zilstein of the Dept of Neurology
and Psychiatry. He explained that
this was an experiment on electric
shock.

EXPERIMENT
3. The subjects were split into two groups:
a. One group was shown elaborate
equipment and led to expect painful
shocks: These shocks will hurt; they
will be painful. As you can guess, if in
this type of research, were to learn
anything at all that will help
humanity, it is necessary that our
shocks be intense.

EXPERIMENT
3. The subjects were split into two
groups:
b. The other group received instructions
leading them to believe that hey
would feel no pain: Do not let the
word shock trouble you; I am sure
that you will enjoy the experiment
It will resemble more like a tickle or a
tingle than anything unpleasant.

4. The group that expected pain was


more anxious than the one that did
not.
5. The experimenter explained that
there was a delay while the
equipment was being set up and
asked the subjects to indicate on
the questionnaire whether they
preferred to wait for the next part of
the experiment alone, with other
subjects, or had no preference.

6. That was the end of the


experiment and the subjects
were debriefed.

QUESTIONS:

(ANXIETY &

AFFILIATION)
1. What was the independent
variable?
2. How did the experimenter control
the independent variable?
3. What was the dependent variable?
4. Give your hypothesis on what
Schacter was trying to prove.
5. Did the findings support the
outcome?

THE PHILOSOPHICAL
TYPE
reflective thinking
Seeks to produce
the widest
generalization

THE PROGNOSTIC TYPE


Predict future
operation of factors
investigated so that
inevitable things
that must be done
may be controlled
more intelligently
(trends)

THE SOCIOLOGICAL
TYPE
study of all human
relationships
purpose of
furnishing
recommendations
for their
improvement

THE CREATIVE
RESEARCH
Reflective
thinking in terms
of aesthetic
values
What is another
word for
aesthetic?