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THE CONCEPT OF CELL

Department of Medical Biology


Dosen : dra. LUSIA HAYATI, MSc

What cell is it ?

Image:
k12station.blogspot.com/2006_08_01_archive.ht
ml

Cell is a basic structural and functional of all living organism

Size of Living Things

1 m = 100 cm = 1,000mm = 1,000,000 m = 1,000,000,000nm


1mm = 1000 m = 1000000nm
1 m = 1000nm

Diagrams:

1. The type of single cell organism,


2. The role of single cell on health and ill

THE TYPE OF SINGLE CELL


ORGANISME

Kingdom Monera >Bacteria


Prokaryotic cells
Bacteria : Gram negative & Gram
Positive

Shapes of Bacteria : Coccus ,


Bacillus , Sprillium

Prokaryotic CellStructure

Plasmids - Gene carrying, circular DNA structures that are not involved in reproduction.

Gram positive & Gram


negative

they stain a dark purple color

these bacteria appear pink

Gram positive & Gram


negative

Gram (+) cell wall is thicker


(20-80 nm) composed of
peptidoglycan

Gr(-) envelope is thin (5-10


nm)

Respiration:
CH2O + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP!

Bacteria have no mitochondrion


glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle in
cytosol
the electron transport system
coupled to oxidative
phosphorylation using mesosomes
(infoldings of the cell membrane)

The Role Of Bacteria On Health


And Illness

1.

2.

3.
4.

The benefits human :


Breakdown of remains and recycle of N, C
&P
Symbiotic with other organism, supply vit
K&B
Manufacturing process,
Easily cultured and used for research (in
genetic engineering, antibiotics)

Bacteria also evolved


relationships with each
other

Saprobes: thrive on dead material


Parasites: thrive to detriment of
host
Commensals: thrive at minimal
effect upon host
Mutualists: both bacterium and
host benefit from each other

The Role Of Bacteria On


Health And Illness

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fort de entry to human body


Air
Water
Food
Wound
Equipment
Animals

1. The structure and function of cell,


2. The role of cell on health and ill

RUDOLF VIRCHOW (1855)

Where a cell exists, there must


have been a preexisting cell, just
as the animal arise only from an
animal and the plant only from a
plant

The 3 Structures Of Cells


1. Chemical :
a)
b)

inorganic (water, mineral)


organic (protein, lipid,
carbohydrate)

2. Physical :
c)
colloidal cellular,
d)
membrane permeability and
e)
osmosis

The 3 Structures Of
Cells
3. Biological :
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

cell wall,
plasma membrane,
cytoplasm,
nucleus,
nuclear membrane

Typical Animal cell

Cell Structures

Cell membrane

delicate lipid
and protein
skin around
cytoplasm
found in all
cells

Nucleus

a membrane-bound
sac evolved to store
the cells
chromosomes(DNA)
has pores: holes

Nucleolus

inside nucleus
location of
ribosome
factory
made or RNA

mitochondrion

makes the
cells energy
the more
energy the cell
needs, the
more
mitochondria it
has

Ribosomes

build proteins
from amino acids
in cytoplasm
may be freefloating, or
may be attached
to ER
made of RNA

Endoplasmic reticulum

may be rough:
stores proteins
made by
attached
ribosomes
may be smooth:
builds lipids and
carbohydrates

Golgi Complex

takes in sacs
of raw
material from
ER
sends out sacs
containing
finished cell
products

Lysosomes

sacs filled with


digestive
enzymes
digest worn out
cell parts
digest food
absorbed by cell

Centrioles

pair of bundled
tubes
organize cell
division

Cytoskeleton

made of
microtubules
found
throughout
cytoplasm
gives shape to
cell & moves
organelles
around inside.

Structures found in plant


cells

Cell wall

very strong
made of
cellulose
protects cell
from rupturing
glued to other
cells next door

Vacuole

huge waterfilled sac


keeps cell
pressurized
stores starch

Chloroplasts

filled with
chlorophyll
turn solar
energy into
food energy

How are plant and animal cells differen

How did organelles


evolve?

many scientists
theorize that
eukaryotes evolved
from prokaryote
ancestors.
in 1981, Lynn Margulis
popularized the
endosymbiont
theory.

Endosymbiont theory:

a prokaryote ancestor eats a


smaller prokaryote

the smaller prokaryote evolves a


way to avoid being digested, and
lives inside its new host cell kind
of like a pet.

Endo = inside
Symbiont = friend

the small prokaryotes that can do


photosynthesis evolve into
chloroplasts, and pay their host
with glucose.
The smaller prokaryotes that can
do aerobic respiration evolve into
mitochondria, and convert the
glucose into energy the cell can
use.
Both the host and the symbiont
benefit from the relationship

Structure
cell membrane
nucleus
nucleolus
ribosomes
ER
Golgi
centrioles
cell wall
mitochondria
cholorplasts
One big vacuole
cytoskeleton

Animal cells
Yes
Yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes

Plant cells
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
Yes

Eukaryote cells can be


multicellular
The whole cell can be specialized

for one job


cells can work together as tissues
Tissues can work together as
organs

Advantages of each kind of cell


architecture

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

simple and easy to


grow

can specialize

fast reproduction

multicellularity

all the same

can build large bodies

All cellular life has the following


characteristics in common

BASIC CHEMICALS:
carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic
acids, minerals, fats and vitamins.
REGULATE the flow of nutrients
and wastes that enter and leave
the cell.
REPRODUCE and are the result of
reproduction.

All cellular life has the following


characteristics in common

SUPPLY OF ENERGY.
HIGHLY REGULATED by ELABORATE
SENSING SYSTEMS (chemical "noses")
that allow them to be aware of every
reaction that is occurring within them
and many of the environmental
conditions around them; this
information is continually PROCESSED
to make metabolic decisions

The Function Of Cell

Produce : enzymes, hormones, new


cells, metabolism, energy
Transport
Information
Defense
Cell therapy
What else ?

THE ROLE OF CELL ON HEALTH AND


ILL

Life span : stable cell, labile cell


Cell death : necrosis, apoptosis,
Aging Process
Abnormal growth: Hyperplasia, Dysplasia,
Neoplasm, Anaplasia, Benign Tumor,
Malignant cancer
Cell division distribute a set identical
chromosomes to daughter cell,
DNA, Hereitary factor, Gene

THE ROLE OF CELL ON HEALTH AND


ILL

Some cells have the ability to multiply


by division
Most of the diseases are due to
malfunction of cells, to cell death or
to cells wrong multiplication rate

KMA

CELL CYCLE = SIKLUS SEL

Cell Cycle Control

A molecular control mechanism rules


cell cycle,
The cell Cycle check point,
The cell cycle clock,
Internal and external factors support
the cell cycle control,
Over growth, de growth, uncontrolled
growth.
KMA

The factors influencing healthy life


Endogenic Factors
Cellular

Tissue
Anatomical

Organ

Healthy Life,

Environment

Life-Style

Exogenic Factors
(modified from Boedhi-Darmojo,1994)
KM
A

PRE-ILL
CONDITION

BAD LIFE STYLE

ENVIRONTMENT

CHRONIC PROCESS

LONGTERM
MICRONUTRIENT
DEFICIENCY

SYSTEMIC
DISEASES
SYMPTOMPS
APPEAR

TREATMENT
JUST FOR
THE SYMPTOM
NOT THE CAUSE

Causal model of risk factors for


CVD
Morbidity and Mortality
(Stroke, MI)

Biological Risk Factors


(Hypertension, Blood Lipids, Homocysteine)

Genetic Risk Factors


(Family History)

Behavioral Risk Factors


(Cigarette, Diet, Exercise)

Environmental Factors
(Socioeconomic Status, Work Environment)

The Causes Of Diseases


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Infectious diseases,
Congenital diseases,
Degenerative diseases,
Mental illness,
Human Inflicted
diseases,
Deficiency diseases.

KM
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The Organogram of Nutrigenomics


Nutrigenetics :
How genetic variation influences
responsiveness to nutrient intake
Nutrigenomics :
How nutrients influence gene
expression

Systems

Transcriptomics : RNA
Proteomics : Proteins
Metabolomics : Metabolites

Biology

Nutritional phenotyping

KMA

The main Book


reference :

Sylvia S. Mader, Human Biology


8th Edition, Mc Graw Hill Higher
Education, Boston, 2004