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CHAPTER 1

STRESS AND STRAIN

1. Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
Explain some of the important principles of statics.
Use the principles to determine internal resultant loadings in a
body.
Explain the concepts of normal, shear, bearing and thermal
stress.
Topics:
Introduction
Main Principles of Statics
Stress
Normal Stress
Shear Stress
Bearing Stress
Thermal Stre

Overview of Mechanics
Mechanics : The study of how bodies react to forces acting on them

RIGID BODIES
(Things that do not change shape)

Statics : The study of bodies


in an equilibrium

Dynamics :
1. Kinematics concerned
with the geometric aspects
of the motion
2. Kinetics concerned
with the forces causing the
motion.

DEFORMABLE BODIES
(Things that do change shape)

Incompressible

FLUIDS

Compressible

Mechanics of Materials :
The study of the relationships
between the external loads
applied to a deformable body and
the intensity of internal forces
acting within the body.

1.1 Introduction

External Loads
External Loads
Body Force
- developed when one body exerts a force on
another body without direct physical contact
between the bodies.
- e.g earths gravitation (weight)

Surface Forces
- caused by direct contact of one body with
the surface of another.

concentrated force

linear distributed load, w(s)

1.2 Main Principles of Statics

STRESS AND STRAIN


Axial Load
Normal Stress
Shear Stress
Bearing Stress
Allowable Stress
Deformation of Structural under Axial Load
Statically indeterminate problem
Thermal Stress

Stress And Strain

Mechanics of material is a study of the


relationship between the external loads applied
to a deformable body and the intensity of
internal forces acting within the body.

Stress = the intensity of the internal force on a


specific plane (area) passing through a point.

Strain = describe the deformation by changes in


length of line segments and the changes in the
angles between them

Type of Stress
Normal Stress : stress which acts perpendicular, or normal to, the
()
cross section of the load-carrying member.
: can be either compressive or tensile.
Shear Stress : stress which acts tangent to the cross section of
()
the load-carrying member.
: refers to a cutting-like action.

1.1 Introduction

Normal Stress and Normal Strain

Normal Stress,
the intensity of force, or force per unit area, acting
normal to A

= P / A

A positive sign will be used to indicate a tensile stress


(member in tension)

A negative sign will be used to indicate a compressive stress


(member in compression)

(a)

(b)

Stress ( ) =

Force (P)

Cross Section (A)

Unit: Nm -
N/mm2 or MPa
N/m2 or Pa

Examples of Axially Loaded Bar


Assumptions :
1. Uniform deformation: Bar
remains straight before and
after load is applied, and
cross section remains flat or
plane during deformation
2. In order for uniform
deformation, force P be
applied along centroidal axis
of cross section C

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1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

Average Normal Stress Distribution


FRz Fz ;

dF dA
A

P A
P

= average normal stress at any point


on cross sectional area
P = internal resultant normal force
A = cross-sectional area of the bar

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1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

Procedure of Analysis
Use equation of = P/A for cross-sectional area of a member when
section subjected to internal resultant force P
Internal Loading
Section member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis at pt
where normal stress is to be determined
Draw free-body diagram
Use equation of force equilibrium to obtain internal axial
force P at the section
Average Normal Stress
Determine members x-sectional area at the section
Compute average normal stress = P/A
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1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

Example 1.1:
Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are
welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that d1=30mm and d2=20mm, find
average normal stress at the midsection of (a)
rod AB, (b) rod BC.

Example 1.2
Two solid cylindrical roads AB and BC are
welded together at B and loaded as shown.
Knowing that d1 = 30 mm and d2 = 50 mm,
find the average normal stress in the mid
section of (a) rod AB, (b) rod BC.

Normal strain, is the elongation or


contraction of a line segment per unit
of length
= L / Lo
L = elongation
Lo =
length

* L=

normal strain
L

Example 1.3:
Determine the corresponding strain for a bar of
length L=0.600m and uniform cross section
which undergoes a deformation =15010-6m.

150 10 m
6

250 10 m / m
L
0.600 m
6

250 10 @ 250

Stress and Strain Example


1.4 A cable and strut assembly ABC supports a vertical load
P=12kN. The cable has an effective cross sectional area of
160mm, and the strut has an area of 340mm.
(a) Calculate the normal stresses in the cable and strut.
(b) If the cable elongates 1.1mm, what is the strain?
(c) If the strut shortens 0.37mm, what is the strain?

1.5 The bar shown has a square cross section


(20mm x 40mm) and length, L=2.8m. If an
axial force of 70kN is applied along the
centroidal axis of the bar cross sectional area,
determine the stress and strain if the bar end
up with 4m length.
70kN

70kN

2.8m

The Stress-Strain
Diagram
Tensile test is an experiment to determine
the load-deformation behavior of the
material.
Data from tensile test can be plot into stress
and strain diagram.
Example of test specimen
- note the dog-bone geometry

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Universal Testing Machine - equipment


used to subject a specimen to tension,
compression, bending, etc. loads and
measure its response

29

Stress-Strain Diagrams

A number of important mechanical


properties of materials that can be deduced
from the stress-strain diagram are illustrated
in figure above.

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Point O-A = linear relationship between stress


and strain
Point A = proportional limit (PL)
The ratio of stress to strain in this linear region
of stress-strain diagram is called Young Modulus
or the Modulus of Elasticity given

< PL

Unit: MPa
At point A-B, specimen begins yielding.
Point B = yield point
Point B-C = specimen continues to elongate without any increase in stress. Its
refer as perfectly plastic zone
Point C = stress begins to increase
Point C-D = refer as the zone of strain hardening
Point D = ultimate stress/strength ; specimen
begins to neck-down
Point E = fracture stress

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Point O to A

Point C to D

Point D to E
At point E

Normal or engineering stress can be determined


by dividing the applied load by the specimen
original cross sectional area.
True stress is calculated using the actual cross
sectional area at the instant the load is
measured.
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Some of the materials like aluminum (ductile),


does not have clear yield point likes
structural steel. Therefore, stress value
called the offset yield stress, YL is used
in line of a yield point stress.

As illustrated, the offset yield stress is


determine by;
Drawing a straight line that best fits the data in initial (linear)
portion of the stress-strain diagram
Second line is then drawn parallel to the original line but offset by
specified amount of strain
The intersection of this second line with
the stress-strain curve determine the
offset yield stress.

Commonly used offset value is 0.002/0.2%


32

Brittle material such as ceramic and glass


have low tensile stress value but high in
compressive stress. Stress-strain diagram for
brittle material.

33

Elasticity and Plasticity

Elasticity refers to the property of a material such


that it returns to its original dimensions after
unloading .
Any material which deforms when subjected to load
and returns to its original dimensions when unloaded
is said to be elastic.
If the stress is proportional to the strain, the material
is said to be linear elastic, otherwise it is non-linear
elastic.
Beyond the elastic limit, some residual strain or
permanent strains will remain in the material upon
unloading .
The residual elongation corresponding to the
permanent strain is called the permanent set .
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The amount of strain which is recovered upon unloading is


called the elastic recovery.

35

Poisson's Ratio,

When an elastic, homogenous and isotropic material


is subjected to uniform tension, it stretches axially
but contracts laterally along its entire length.
Similarly, if the material is subjected to axial
compression, it shortens axially but bulges out
laterally (sideways).
The ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is a constant
known as the Poisson's ratio,

radial

lateral
axial

longitudinal

where the strains are caused by uniaxial stress only


-ve sign is used since longitudinal elongation
(positive strain) causes lateral contraction (negative
strain) and vice versa.
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Example 1.6
A 10 cm diameter steel rod is loaded with 862 kN by
tensile forces. Knowing that the E=207 GPa and =
0.29, determine the deformation of rod diameter
after being loaded.
Solution
p
862 x10 3 N

109.7 MPa
1
A
2
2
in rod, =
(0.1) m

109.7 MPa
0.00053
207 x10 3 MPa

Lateral strain,

l ( a ) o.29(0.00053)
0.000154

d l ( D ) ( 0.000154)(0.1)
0.00154cm
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Exercises 1
1.

A steel pipe of length L=1.2 m, outside diameter d2=150mm and


inside diameter d1=110mm is compressed by an axial force P=
620kN.The material has modulus of elasticity E= 200GPa and
Poissons Ratio v = 0.30.Determine :
a) the shortening,
( ans :-0.455 mm)
b) the lateral strain, lateral (ans: 113.9x10-6)

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2. A hollow circular post ABC as shown in Figure 2 supports a load


P1=7.5 kN acting at the top. A second load P2 is uniformly
distributed around the cap plate at B. The diameters and
thicknesses of the upper and lower parts of the post are dAB=32
mm, tAB= 12mm, dBC 57 mm and tBC=9mm, respectively.
a) Calculate the normal stress, AB in the upper part
of the post. (ans: 9.95 MPa)
b) If it is desired that the lower part of the post
have the same compressive stress as the upper
part, what should be the magnitude of the load P2?
(ans : P2=6kN)

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3.

A standard tension test is used to determine the


properties of an experimental plastic. The test
specimen is a 15 mm diameter rod and it is
subjected to a 3.5 kN tensile force. Knowing that an
elongation of 11 mm and a decrease in diameter of
0.62 mm are observed in a 120 mm gage length.
Determine the modulus of elasticy, the modulus of
rigidity, and Poissons ratio of the material.

49

Shear Stress
A force acting parallel or tangential to a section taken
through a material (i.e. in the plane of the material) is called
a shear force
The shear force intensity, i.e. shear force divided by the
area over which it acts, is called the average shear stress,
= shearV
stress

V = shear force
A
A = cross-sectional area

Shear stress arises as a result of the direct action of forces


trying to cut through a material, it is known as direct shear
force

Shear

stresses can also arise indirectly as a result of tension,


torsion or bending of a member.
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Depending

on the type of connection, a connecting


element (bolt, rivet, pin) may be subjected to
single shear or double shear as shown.

Rivet in Single Shear

V
P

d2
A

42

Rivet in Double Shear


V

A

P
2P
2
2
d
d
2( )
4

Example 1.9
For the 12 mm diameter bolt shown in the bolted joint
below, determine the average shearing stress in the bolt.

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Single Shear

ave

P F

A A

Double Shear

P F
ave
A 2A

Shear Strain

The effect of shear stress is to distort the shape of


a body by inducing shear strains
The shear strain, is a measure of the angular
distortion of the body.
x
L

x

L
(units: degrees, radians)

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Bearing Stress

Bearing stress is also known as a contact stress


Bearing stress in shaft key;
b

P
M r
2M

Ab (h 2) L rhL

Bearing stress in rivet and plat;


P
b
td

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Example 2.0
A punch for making holes in steel plates is shown
in the figure. Assume that a punch having
diameter d=20 mm is used to punch a hole in an 8
mm plates, what is the average shear stress in the
plate and the average compressive stress in the
punch if the required force to create the hole is P
= 110kN.
P
.
20 mm

8 mm

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Shear Modulus
It

also known as Shear Modulus of Elasticity or the


Modulus of Rigidity.
Value of shear modulus can be obtained from the
linear region of shear stress-strain diagram.

Unit : Pa

The

modulus young (E), poissons ratio() and the


modulus of rigidity (G) can be related as

E
2(1 )

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Volume Change
Because

of the change in the dimensions of a body


as a result of tension or compression, the volume of
the body also changes within the elastic limit.
Consider a rectangular parallel piped having sides
a, b and c in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

58

The tensile force P causes an axial elongation of a


and lateral contractions of b and c in the x, y,
and z directions respectively. Hence,

Initial
body

Initial volume of body, Vo = abc


Final volume, Vf = (a + a)(b - b)(c - c)

= abc(1 + )(1 - )2

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Expanding and neglecting higher orders of (since is very


small),
Final volume, Vf = abc(1 + - 2)
Change in volume,
V = Final Volume - Initial Volume
= abc(1 + - 2 ) - abc
= abc(1 + - 2 - 1)
= abc( - 2 )
= Vo (1 - 2 )
Hence,

V
Vo

(1 2 )
(1 2 )

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Isotropic material is subjected to general triaxial


stress x, y and z.
Since all strain satisfy << 1, so v = x + y + z

1
x ( y z )
E

x =

1
y ( x z )
E

y =
z =

1
z ( x y )
E

1 2
(
E

)
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Example 2.1
A titanium alloy bar has the following original dimensions: x =
10cm; y = 4cm; and z = 2cm. The bar is subjected to stresses x
= 14 N and
y = - 6 N, as indicated in figure below. The
remaining stresses (z, xy, xz and yz) are all zero. Let E = 16 kN
and = 0.33 for the titanium alloy.
(a)Determine the changes in the length for
x, y and z.
(b) Determine the dilatation, v.
y

6N

14 N

14 N

x
z

6N
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Allowable Stress

Applied load that is less than the load the member can fully support.
(maximum load)

One method of specifying the allowable load for the design or analysis of a
member is use a number called the Factor of Safety (FS).

FS

F fail
Fallow
FS > 1

Allowable-Stress Design

allow

yield

FS

or allow

yield

FS

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Statically Indeterminate Axially


Loaded Member

If a bar is fixed at both ends, as shown in


fig. (a), two unknown axial reactions
occurs, and the force equilibrium
equation becomes;
F 0;

FB FA P 0
In this case, the bar is called statically
indeterminate, since the equilibrium
equation are not sufficient to determine
the reactions.
the relative displacement of one end of the bar
with respect to the other end is equal to zero
since the ends supports are fixed. Hence;
A / B 0
the relationship between the forces acting on
the bar and its changes in length are known as
force-displacement relations

Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded


Member (cont)
A / B 0,

PL
AE

A B 0

FB FA P 0, FA P FB

Realizing that the internal force in segment AC is +F A, and in segment CB,


the internal force is FB. Therefore, the equation can be written as;
FA L AC FBL CB

0
AE
AE
FA L AC FBL CB

AE
AE
F L
AE
FA B CB
AE
L AC
F L
FA B CB
L AC

L CB

L
AC

F L
P FB B CB
L AC

P FB

F L
P B CB FB
L AC

P FB

L CB

1
L AC

P FB

P FB

L AC

L AC

L CB L AC

L AC

L AC
L

FB P AC
L

Example 2.2:

Solution:
FX 0,

FA FB 20(103 )N 0................(1)
FB 20(103 ) FA

B / A 0.001m
A B 0.001m
FA L AC FB L CB

0.001m
AE
AE
FA ( 0.4m )
FB( 0.8m )

0.001m
0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2 0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2



or
FA (0.4m ) FB ( 0.8m ) 3927.0N................( 2)
Substitute eq (1)int o eq ( 2)
FA (0.4m ) ( 20, 000N FA )( 0.8m ) 3927.0N
FA 16.6kN
FB 3.39kN

Example 2.3:

Solution:

Fy 0,

FA FC FE 15(103 ) N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0
FA ( 0.4) 15(103 )( 0.2) FE ( 0.4) 0 ...........( 2)

The applied load will cause the horizontal line


ACE move to inclined line ACE
E
A E
C
0.8
0.4
C E
E
A
0.4
0.8
E
C E A
0.4
0. 8
0.4 A 0.4 E
C
E
0.8
C 0.5 A 0.5 E

FC LCD

1.5 105 E st
FC ( 0.5)

1.5 105 E st

FE L EF

0
.
5

5
2.5 105 E st
2.5 10 E st

FA (0.5)
FE ( 0.5)

0
.
5

5
2.5 105 E st
2.5 10 E st
FA L AB

0.5
0.5

33.33 103 FC 10 103 FA 10 103 FE


FC

10 103 FA 10 103 FE

33.33 103
FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq(3)

Fy 0,

FA FC FE 15(103 )N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0
FA (0.4) 15(103 )(0.2) FE (0.4) 0 ...........( 2)
FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq(3)
Substitute eq (3) int o eq(1)
3

FA FC FE 15(10 )N 0................(1)
FA (0.3FA 0.3FE )FE 15(103 ) 0
3

1.3FA 1.3FE 15(10 )


15(103 ) 1.3FA
FE
1.3
3

FE 11.538(10 ) FA .......................eq( 4)

Substitute eq ( 4) int o eq( 2)


FA (0.4) 15(103 )( 0.2) FE ( 0.4) 0
FA (0.4) 3(103 ) (0.4) 11.538(103 ) FA 0

FA ( 0.4) 3(103 ) 4.615(103 ) 0.4FA 0


7.615103
FA
0.8
9.519(103 )
9.52kN

Re place FA 9.52kN int o eq ( 4)


9.52kN
FE 11.538(103 ) FA
11.538(103 ) 9.52(103 )
2.02 kN
Re place FE 2.02 kN int o eq(3)
FC 0.3FA 0.3FE
0.3(9.519(103 ) 0.3( 2.02 103 )
3.462 kN

Thermal Stress

A change in temperature can cause material to change its


dimensions.
If the temperature increases, generally a material expands,
whereas if the temperature decreases, the material will
contract.
If this is the case, and the material is homogenous and
isotropic, it has been found from experiment that the
deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated
using the formula;

T=TL
Where
1/C)

=linear coefficient of thermal expansion (unit:


T=change in temperature
L=original length of the member
T=change in length of the member

Example 2.4:

Given: =12x10-6/C

Solution:
FY 0
FA FB F

AB 0

( )

The change in length of the bar


is zero (because the supports do
not move)
To determine the change in
length, remove the upper support
of the bar and obtain a bar is
fixed at the base and free to
displace at the upper end.
AB T F
So the bar will elongate by an
amount T when only
temperature change is acting
And the bar shortens by an
amount F when only the reaction
is acting

( ) AB T F
T F 0
TL

FL
0
AE

12 106 (60 30)(1)


3.6 104

F(1)
2

0.01 ( 200 10 )

F(1)
0.012 ( 200 109 )

F 3.6 104 0.012 ( 200 109 )


7.2kN

Average normal thermal stress:

F 7.2kN
;

72
MPa
A 0.012

Example 2.5

Given:

st 12 106 / C
al 23 106 / C
Est 200 109 Pa
E al 73.1 109 Pa

Solution:

Fy 0,

2Fst Fal 90(103 )N 0.........eq(1)


st al ...............................eq ( 2)

( ) st (st )T ( st )F
al (al )T (al )F
(st )T (st )F (al )T (al )F
TL

Fst L
FL
TL al
Ast E
A al E

12 106 (80 20)(0.25)

Fst (0.25)
2

(0.02) ( 200 10 )

23 106 (80 20)(0.25)


1.8 104

Fst (0.25)
251.327 106 )

3.45 104

Fal (0.25)

(0.03)2 (73.1 109 )


Fal (0.25)

( 206.685 106 )

1.8 104 9.947 1010 Fst 3.45 104 1.21 109 Fal
9.947 1010 Fst 3.45 104 1.21 10 9 Fal 1.8 10 4
Fst

1.65 104 1.21 109 Fal


9.947 1010

165.88 103 1.216Fal ...............eq (3)

Substitute eq (3)int o eq(1)


2Fst Fal 90(103 )N 0
2( 165.88 103 1.216Fal ) Fal 90(103 )N 0
331.76 103 2.432Fal Fal 90(103 )N 0
3.432Fal 421.76 103
Fal 122.89 kN
Substitute Fal 122.89 kN int o eq (3)
Fst 165.88 103 1.216Fal
165.88 103 1.216(122.89 103 )
16.445 kN
The negative value for F steel indicates that the
force acts opposite to arrow shown.
THE STEEL POSTS ARE IN TENSION and
ALUMINIUM POSTS IS IN COMPRESSION

TUTORIAL 1
Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel
bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both
supports before the loads are applied.

Answer, RA= 323 kN, Rb= 577kN

66

Determine the reactions at A and B for


the steel bar and loading shown, assuming
a close fit at both supports before the
loads are applied.
SOLUTION:
Consider the reaction at B as redundant,
release the bar from that support, and
solve for the displacement at B due to
the applied loads.
Solve for the displacement at B due to
the redundant reaction at B.
Require that the displacements due to
the loads and due to the redundant
reaction be compatible, i.e., require that
their sum be zero.
Solve for the reaction at A due to
applied loads and the reaction found at B.

SOLUTION:
Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,

P1 0 P2 P3 600 103 N P4 900 103 N


A1 A2 400 10 6 m 2

A3 A4 250 10 6 m 2

L1 L2 L3 L4 0.150 m
Pi Li 1.125 109
L

E
i Ai Ei
Solve for the displacement at B due to the
redundant constraint,
P1 P2 RB
A1 400 10 6 m 2
L1 L2 0.300 m

A2 250 10 6 m 2

Pi Li
1.95 103 RB
R

A
E
E
i i i

Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to


the redundant reaction be compatible,
L R 0

1.125 109 1.95 103 RB


0
E
E
RB 577 103 N 577 kN

Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at


B

Fy 0 R A 300 kN 600 kN 577 kN


R A 323 kN

R A 323 kN
RB 577 kN

TUTORIAL 2
Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=200 GPa) and
AC made of aluminum (E=72 GPa), are joined at C and
restrained by rigid supports at A and D. Determine
(a)
the reactions at A and D (RA=52.9kN, RD= 87.1 kN)
(b)

The deflection of point C (0.086 mm)

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TUTORIAL 3
At room temperature (21oC) a 0.5 mm gap exists
between the ends of the rods shown. At a later time
when the temperature has reached 1600C, determine
(a)The normal stress in the aluminum rod (a =-150.6
MPa)
(b)The change in length of the aluminum rod (a= 0.369
mm)

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