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o Performance appraisals are a very important management ritual conducted by most organizations in order to optimize the contributions of their

employees. o This will include the processes of correcting incompetence as well as rewarding competent performance. o Appraisals have very real implications , both for the individual as well as the organization. o For the individual , a positive appraisal can lead to demotions and even retrenchment.


o The key issue in any performance appraisal system is that it entails a judgement to be made in regard to an individual’s performance over a certain period of time. o How do you make a judgement on an individual’s performance; do you concentrate on his strong points or concentrate on the weaker factors ? Or do you to achieve a “balance” ? o The decision to solve the problem will depend upon the right diagnosis and accurate assessment.

o There can be many reasons for poor performance . Some have been discussed below:---a) One of the key factors that will ensure the success or failure of any performance appraisal , is unbiased appraisal by those responsible. b) Unbiased appraisal is critical , as it will give a “True” And “Fair” picture of an individual’s performance.

c) The next is in the format of the appraisal itself . In most appraisal systems , a manager is expected to make a judgement of an individual and formalize this in a document. d) Therefore in a qualitative system for example, a manager will have to answer the query , “How has the individual performed during the course of the year” with perhaps the following responses , poor , satisfactory , good very and excellent.

e) Further questions can be raised as to why an individual deserves grading of good rather than very good or satisfactory rather than poor. f) On the other hand , in a quantitative system , it is very difficult to differentiate between numerical grading . Why does someone get an 8 and not a 7 for example? g)There is also the problem of consistency and the different value judgments of different managers.

h) Problems will then arise regarding consistency , as each departmental head will have his own value judgments , which will influence his appraisal.

 Work performance is influenced by a number of factors . When performance is excellent , it is a result of a number of circumstances that work together to make this excellence possible.  So, stellar performance requires that all relevant influences on behavior are in place.  Poor performance can result from a single factor or influence that drastically reduces effectiveness.

 Frequently , a performance problem that is allowed to continue unchecked will expand as other influences turn from positive to negative.

This model given by Robert Bacal. There are 7 factors that influence or determine the level of performance . These factors are multiplicative in nature . If there is a deficit in any one of the factors , performance will suffer. Factor 1 :Aptitude Aptitude refers to a person’s ability to perform the task or task’s. Each of us ha strengths and weaknesses that determine if we can learn or perform to task.

Poor aptitude for a task could mean that the person could never learn how to do it, even with all the supports in the world. Assessing aptitude is very difficult. Factors 2 : Skill level Even the simplest responsibilities require skills. Skills differ from aptitudes in what they can be learned, up to the limits imposed by aptitude. The assess whether a performance deficit is a result of lack of skill, ask then questions, “If his/her life depended on it, could the person do the task?”If the answer is no, then it could be a skill problem.

Factor 3 : Understanding of Task A person must understand the nature of the task, and what is expected. If this clear communication is lacking, no amt of skill or motivation will bring about effective performance. PM is the common means for conveying understanding of the task. The best way to assess an employee’s understanding is to ask questions within a coaching environment. Factor 4 : Choice to expand factor If the person has the aptitude ,skills and

understanding of the task required, it may be that there are factors causing the person to “not make the effort”. These may be personal or related to the work environment. Assessing if it is a motivational problem then it is difficult, and can best be done by examining other indicators behaviour (absenteeism, lack of participation in meetings, or other factors that suggest a motivational problem.) Factor 5: Choice of degree of effort to expand Sometimes effort is not an on/off thing. An employee may be putting in a limited amt of effort and therefore producing inferior results.

Factors 6 : Choice to persist Performance requires that effort be initiated and sustained over time. This motivational factor may result in projects started but never completed. If an employee is not persisting in tasks, it can indicate boredom, fear of failure or may relate to a lack of skills. Careful, diplomatic discussion is required to uncover if and why this may be occurring. Factor 7 : Outside factors Performance can be reduced due to factors beyond the control of the individual. The

Organization itself may be setting barriers to performance, or uncooperative coworkers and manager may contribute. Discussion with the employee during performance mgmt should include reference to factors outside the control of the employee that impede progress. If these outside factors are allowed to continue, unacknowledged, motivational levels will drop, complicating the issue and creating a chronic under-performance.