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You are on page 1of 39

There must be an applied force.

The force must act through a certain distance, called the

displacement.

The force must have a component along the displacement.

equal to the product of

the magnitudes of the

displacement and the

component of the force in

the direction of the

displacement.

W=F.r

W = F cos r

UNITS: N.m, this unit is

called a Joule (J)

direction during the objects displacement, graphical analysis

can be used to determine the work done. F is plotted on the yaxis and the distance through which the object moves is plotted

on the x-axis. The work done is represented by the area under

the curve.

50 m when the force is transmitted by a rope making an angle of 30 with

the horizontal?

F = 60 N, 30

r = 50 m

W = F cos r

= 60 cos 30 (50)

= 2598 J

6.2 How much work is done against gravity in lifting a 3.0 kg object

through a vertical distance of 40 cm.

m = 3 kg

h = 0.4 m

W = mgh

= 3(9.8)(0.4)

= 12 J

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.25 and the length of the plane is 12 m.

a. Find the work done by each force acting on the block.

Fa = 200 N

Fg = 100 N

= 30

= 0.25

r = 12 m

FN does NO work.

W Fa = Fa r

= 200 (12)

= 2400 J

Ff = F N

= Fgcos 30

= 0.25 (100) cos 30 = 21.6 N

WFf = -Ff r

= - 21.6 (12)

= -259.2 J

FN

Ff

Fg

Fgy

Fgx

= - 100 sin 30 (12)

= - 600 J

b. Show that the net work done by these forces is the same as the work of

the resultant force.

Net work:

W = 2400 - 259.2 - 600

= 1540.8 J

FN

Ff

Fg

Fgy

Fgx

Fx = Fa - Ff - Fgx

= 200 - 21.6 - 50

= 128.4 N

WF = F R . r

= 128.4 (12)

= 1540.8 J

ENERGY

Energy is that which can be converted into work. When

something has energy, it is able to perform work or, in a

general sense, to change some aspect of the physical world.

KINETIC ENERGY: K.E, energy possessed by a body by

virtue of its motion.

1

2

mv 2

virtue of position or condition.

PE = m g h

WORK-ENERGY PRINCIPLE:

The work of a resultant external force on a body is equal to the

change in kinetic energy of the body.

W = KE

Fg = 3200 N

v = 20.8 m/s

m = Fg/g = 326.5 kg

KE = mv2

= (326.5) (20.8)2

= 7.06 x104 J

260 m/s as it penetrates into wood at a distance of 12 cm?

m = 0.016 kg

x = 0.12 m

vo = 260 m/s

vf = 0 m/s

1

2

2

m

(

v

v

W = KE 2

f

o)

1 2

Fr mvo

2

mvo2

(0.016)(260) 2

F

= - 4506.7 N

2(0.12)

2r

6.6 A 250 g object is held 200 mm above a workbench that is 1 m above the

floor. Find the potential energy relative to

a. the bench top

m = 0.25 kg

h = 0.2 m

b. the floor

h = 1.2 m

PE = mgh

= 0.25 (9.8) (0.2)

= 0.49 J

PE = mgh

= 0.25 (9.8) (1.2)

= 2.94 J

W = PE

The work done by a conservative force depends only on the

initial and final position of the object acted upon. An example

of a conservative force is gravity. The work done equals the

change in potential energy and depends only on the initial and

final positions above the ground and NOT on the path taken.

moving an object against a non-conservative force depends on

the path. For example, the work done in sliding a box of books

against friction from one end of a room to the other depends on

the path taken.

The law of conservation of energy states that:

"Energy is neither created nor destroyed."

Energy can be transformed from one kind to another,

but the total amount remains constant.

For mechanical systems involving

conservative forces, the total

mechanical energy equals the

sum of the kinetic and potential

energies of the objects that make

up the system.

6.7 A 40 kg ball is pulled to one side until it is 1.6 m above its lowest point.

What will its velocity be as it passes through its lowest point?

m = 40 kg

h = 1.6 m

PE = K

mgh = mv2

6.8 In an Atwood machine the two masses are 800 g and 700 g. The system

is released from rest. How fast is the 800-g mass moving after it has fallen

120 cm?

m1 = 0.8 kg

m2 = 0.7 kg

h = 1.2 m

PE = K

PE = m2gh m1gh

= 0.7 ( 9.8) (1.2) - 0.8 (9.8) (1.2)

= - 1.17 J

loss of PE = gain in K

vf

1

K mT (v 2f vo2 ) = 1.17 J

2

2(1.17)

2K

=

1.25

m/s

0.7 0.8

m1 m2

6.9 If friction forces are negligible and the bead has a speed of 200 cm/s at

point A, a. What will be its speed at point B?

A

C

B

At point A

Energy: PEA + KA

At point B

PEA + KA = KB

1

1

2

mgh mv A mv B2

2

2

vA = 2 m/s

hA = 0.8 m

hB = 0 m

v B v A2 2 gh

(2) 2 2(9.8)(0.8)

= 4.4 m/s

hC = 0.5 m

A

At point C

PEA + KA = PEC + KC

1 2

1 2

mgh A mv A mghC mvC

2

2

1 2

vC 2( g (h A hC ) v A ) 2(9.8(0.8 0.5) 1 (2) 2 ) = 3.14 m/s

2

2

GENERAL CASE

In real life applications, some of the mechanical energy is lost

due to friction. The work due to non-conservative forces is

given by:

WNC = K + PE

6.10 Suppose the bead in Prob. 6.9 has a mass of 15 g and a speed of 2 m/s

at A, and it stops as it reaches point C. The length of the wire from A to C is

250 cm. How large is the average friction force that opposes the motion of

the bead?

m = 0.015 kg

vA = 2 m/s

hA = 0.8 m

r = 2.5 m

vC = 0 m/s

hC = 0.5 m

WFf = K + PE = Ff r

1

K m(vC2 v A2 ) = 0 - (0.015)(2)2 = - 0.03 J

2

PE K ( 0.04) (0.03)

Ff

= - 0.028 N

r

2.5

angle of 30. If k = 0.1. Find the final velocity at the bottom of the plane

from energy considerations.

Fg = 64 N

m = 64/9.8 = 6.5 kg

h = 30 m

= 0.1

r = 15 m

At the TOP

PE = mgh

= 64(15)

= 960 J

r = 30 sin 30= 15 m

Fg = 64 N

m = 64/9.8 = 6.5 kg

h = 30 m

= 0.1 r = 15 m

At the BOTTOM

PE = K + WFf

Ff = FN = Fg cos 30

= 0.1 (64 cos 30 )

= 5.54 N

K = PE - WFf

= 960 - 166.2

= 793.8 J

WFf = Ff r

= 5.54 (15)

= 166.2 J

K = mv2

2 K 2(793.8)

= 15.6 m/s

6.5

m

POWER

Is the rate at which work is performed.

P=W =Fr = Fv

t

t

P = work/time

from rest to a speed of 25 m/s in a time of 8.0 s. What power must the

motor produce to cause this acceleration?

m = 1200 kg

vo = 0 m/s vf = 25 m/s

t=8s

1

W = K m(v 2f v o2 ) = (1200)(25)2= 3.75x105 J

2

5

W 3.75 x10

= 47 kW

P

t

8

6.13 A 0.25 hp motor is used to lift a load at the rate of 5 cm/s. How great a

load can it lift at this constant speed? (1 hp = 746 W)

P = 0.25 hp (746 W/hp) = 186.5 W

v = 0.05 m/s

P = Fv

P 186.5

F

= 3730 N

v

0.05

F 3730

m

= 380.6 kg

g

9.8

Elastic potential energy is associated with elastic materials. The

force Fp applied to a spring to stretch it or to compress it an

amount x is directly proportional to x. That is: Fp = k x

Where k is a constant called the spring constant and is a

measure of the stiffness of the particular spring. The spring

itself exerts a force in the opposite direction:

Fs = - k x

exerts its force in the direction opposite to the displacement.

This equation is known as the spring equation or Hookes Law.

PEs = kx2 Units: Joules (J)

6.14 A dart of mass 0.100 kg is pressed against the spring of a toy dart gun.

The spring (k = 250 N/m) is compressed 6.0 cm and released. If the dart

detaches from the spring when the spring reaches its normal length, what

speed does the dart acquire?

m = 0.1 kg

k = 250 N/m

x = 0.06 m

PEs = K

kx2 = mv2

250(0.06) 2

kx 2

= 3 m/s

0.1

m

spring constant k is 28 N/m. The ball, supported initially so that the spring

is neither stretched nor compressed, is released from rest. How far does the

ball fall before being brought to a momentary stop by the spring?

m = 0.20 kg

k = 28 N/m

vo = 0 m/s

ho = 0.5 m

2mgho

PEg = PEs

mgho = kx2

2(0.2)(9.8)(0.5)

= 0.26 m

28

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