You are on page 1of 13



HIST 120
Fatma Tunç Yaşar
Ancient Mediterranean

• Ancient: Very old, aged, old-fashioned,

• Ancient History: Before the end of the
Western Roman Empire A.D. 476.
• Ancient Civilizations: The Greeks, Romans,
Hebrews, and Egyptians

• The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to
the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the
Mediterranean region.
• Mediterranean region surrounded on the north
by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by Africa,
and on the east by the Levant.
• The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic
Ocean, although it is usually identified as a
completely separate body of water.

Mediterranean as a word
• The name Mediterranean is derived from the
Latin mediterraneus.

• Mediterraneus means "inland" or "in the middle

of the earth" (from medius, "middle" and terra,

• The Levant (Arabic: , Bilad ash-Shām, also
known as ‫ المشرق‬Mashriq)
• French word Levant means "the Orient".
• It means traditionally the Eastern Mediterranean
at large.
• The Levant includes the countries of Lebanon,
Israel and the Palestinian territories, Syria,
Jordan, and occasionally Cyprus, Sinai, and
part of Iraq.

Bordering Countries
• 21 modern states have a coastline on the
Mediterranean Sea. They are:
• Europe (from west to east): Spain, France,
Monaco, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, Croatia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania,
Greece and Turkey.
• Asia (from north to south): Turkey, Cyprus,
Syria, Lebanon, Israel.
• Africa (from east to west): Egypt, Libya, Tunisia
, Algeria and Morocco.

First Civilizations
4th millennium BC

• Mesopotamia
• Egypt
Classical antiquity
• It is the period between 8th–7th century BC, and
5th century AD.
• It refers to a long period of cultural history
centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising
the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece
and Ancient Rome, collectively known as the
Greco-Roman world
Classical antiquity
Two of the most notable Mediterranean
civilizations in classical antiquity were the Greek
city states and the Phoenicians.
The Greeks expanded throughout the Black Sea

and south through the Red Sea. The Phoenicians

spread through the western Mediterranean
reaching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
The Hellenistic period (323 – 146 BC)
• It follows the conquests of Alexander the Great.
During this time, Greek cultural influence and
power was at its peak in Europe and Asia.
• It is often considered a period of transition,
between the Greek Classical Era and the
emergence of the Roman Empire.

Roman Empire
• Western Rome ended in 476 A.D.
• Eastern Rome continued as Byzantine
Course Description:

• The Mediterranean Sea functioned as a force
between the civilizations which surrounded it,
at once the major dividing barrier and the
major connecting element. This course is about
the Ancient Mediterranean world and its
relations to the larger context. It will consider
the role of its physical environment in shaping
societies, civilizations and inter-cultural