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The ımportance of the conquest
The conquest of Istanbul was very important for the Muslims because of the Prophet hadith which said: One day Contantinople will definitely be conquered. What a good amir and what a good army is the one that will accomplish this.” Hence, Mehmed II and the Ottoman army were really aware of the significance of the conquest. Ottoman dervishes accompanied with Ottoman army during the conquest. There is also number of ordinary people who want participating in the conquest of Constantinople to be the recipient of the
What will happen after the conquest?
they had different ideas about what will happen after the conquest; will they destroy this infidel city or will they make it an Islamic city? The process which will begin after the conquest would be determined according to these approaches.
After the conquest
was troubled with chaos and anarchy during the first days after the conquest. After the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II, there were three important problems. To revitalize city in terms of economics and social life To repopulate To Islamize
URBANIZATION PROCESS IN THE NEWLY ACQUIRED CITY: REPOPULATION
Mehmed II’s policy towards the reconstruction of Contantinople was very different from the other newly conquered cities. As in the case of other newly acquired cities, Turks and other Muslim populations from different regions of Anatolia was forced to immigrate to newly conquest cities in order to provide security and convert them into Islamic cities. In the case of Istanbul, Mehmed II forced Greek and different ethnic populations to settle in Istanbul as well as Muslim subjects. Especially, encouraging measurements for the settlement of Greek population in Istanbul caused a discontent among Muslim subjects. According to some of them; Constantinople would destroyed or become an Islamic city, there is no an other alternative way. Hence, some Muslims were not willing to live in such a
“Sultan Mehmed Han Gazi kim İstanbul’u feth etdi subaşılığını kulı Süleyman Beg’e verdi. Ve cemi vilayetlerine kullar gönderdi kim: “Hatırı olanlar gelsün, evler, bağlar, bahçalar mülklüğe gelüb dutsun, dedi” dedi, ve her kim geldiyse verdiler; bu şehir bunun ile ma’mur olmadı. Bu kez Padişah hükm etti kim ganiden ve fakirden evler süreler. Her vilayetin kadılarına ve subaşılarına hüküm ile kullar gönderdiler. Anlar dahi hüküm mucebince mübalağa evler sürüb getürdiler. Ve bu gelen halka dahi evler verdiler....” Aşıkpaşağlu, Tevarih-i Al-i Osman, p. 193, in Osmanlı Tarihleri, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1949
ARCHITECTURE AFTER THE CONQUEST: walls
conquest of Constantinople and the reign of Mehmed II mark a turning point in both architectural and historical consciousness. One of first orders of Mehmed’s as the governor of the city, was to rebuild the walls. The main reason was the anxiety of Mehmmed II about the capturing of Istanbul by the Crusaders.
After some measurements to defend Istanbul from possible attacks, Mehmed II directed his attention to convert Constantinople into an Islamic city. He converted the church of Hagia Sophia to a mosque following the conquest of Constantinople. It was clearly done for its symbolic content. The conversion involved minimal physical transformation, and even its name remained the same in Turkish, Ayasofya Camii. Its architecture and mosaic decoration
It is a mixture
In addition, Muslim and Ottoman symbols were introduced into Hagia Sophia, including the first minaret and the mihrab, and other mosque furnishings. There was still a big dispute about the restoration of Hagia Sophia; Some of the Ottoman dignitaries argued that Hagia Sophia need not to be preserved since it had been built by non-Muslims. This point shows that, despite largely successful official efforts to Islamize the building, its Christian memory had not been completely erased.
Hagia Sophia as Museum
Half a millennium later, for example, Atatürk performed a similar symbolic transformation. As he secularized the Turkish state, he secularized Hagia Sophia. These two conversions of Hagia Sophia from a church to a mosque and then a museum are very important. First one is important for the representation of Muslim power over the Christian world. The second one is important for the representation of westernization and modernization of Turkey. It meant that Turkey became a part of western world.
Abu Eyyub El-Ensari
Islamizationprocess of Istanbul has continued with other kinds of projects. Evliya Çelebi said that Mehmed II ordered a search for the burial place of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. He was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, who died during the Arab siege of the city in 674-76. In 1458, Mehmed II built a complex including the tomb of El-Ensari Ayyub El-Ensari’s tomb rapidly became the most sacred place in Istanbul. Later, each Sultan after accession to the throne visited the tomb. Therefore, some historians thought that the discovery of Ayyub’s tomb was invented for political reasons . They argued that Mehmed II’ tried to realize cultural and religious conversion of Constantinople into Istanbul.
Mehmed reşad: from dolmabahçe to eyup sultan
The construction of the Fatih Camii is recognized as one of Mehmet's important symbolic acts of refoundation. It was constructed between 1462 and 1470. It replaced the old Byzantine Church of the Holy Apostles (Havariyyun Church) and the Tomb of Constantine. There were reused building materials from the church, such as column pieces and stone blocks of the foundations especaially in the courtyard. Mehmed II’s biographer Tursun Bey wrote that Mehmet had "constructed a great mosque (Fatih Mosque) on the design of Ayasofya, combining all the characteristics of Ayasofya.
The original complex included a set of well-planned buildings constructed around the mosque. It included eight medrese, library, hospital, hospice, caravanserai, market, hamam, primary school and public kitchen (imaret) which served food to the poor. Various türbe were added at a later dates. The original mosque was badly damaged in the 1509 earthquake, after that it was repaired, but was then damaged again by earthquakes in 1557 and 1754 and repaired yet again. It was then completely destroyed by an earthquake on 22 May 1766 when the main dome was collapsed and the walls were irrepairably damaged. The current mosque (designed on a completely different plan) was completed in 1771 under Sultan Mustafa III by the architect, Mimar Mehmet Tahir.
Fatih Külliyesi (CamiMedreselerKütüphaneTürbelerKervansarayTabhaneÇarşı-Hamam) Fatih-İstanbul
Ye ni Rü Ca st mi e m Pa şa Ca mi i
Süleymani ye Camii
Ayasof ya Camii
Nuru osma niye Camii Fatih Camii
Sultan Ahme d Camii
Ba yez id Ca mii
Şe hza de Me hm ed Ca mii
Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han Türbesi ve Fatih Camii