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By Svat Soucek
• This article is about Ottoman maritime and new discoveries in the world. • It discusses the reasons of Ottoman ignorance of new inventions and discoveries. • It argues that the main resason for Ottoman’s disinterest in discoveries and inventions was their world view based on theocracy and scholastic thought .
How was the World in 1400s?
• Until the 1400s , world did not change in terms of society , politics and lifestyle in a great extend . • There was always change , but the rapid of change was different in different periods . • The radical transformation in world history took place in the course of three centuries , from 1400 and 1700 .
In 1400s: Christians, Muslims and Chinese
• In 1400 , Christian Europe was not so differerent from other important civilizations around the globe . • Civilizations of Europe , Islam and China were comparable in terms of religious , cultural and geographical affairs , intellectual and material achievements . • They all had an incomplete knowledge of the planet they inhabited , and a naive concept of the cosmological nature of a world . • They were asking whet her Earth was flat or circular. • Generally speaking , Christians , Muslims , and Chinese shared , despite all the differences , comparable ü modes of travel and transportation , ü production and trade , ü education and publishing , ü politics and law , ü science and technology , and ü military strength and warfare .
• • • • • • Conquest of Constantinople Renaissance Reformation Humanism Invention of publishing Great Discoveries
Humanism and Renaissance
• In Europe humanism and the Renaissance appeared, • With them, there was a shift from the primarily religious and spiritual to the more worldly and experimental. • But, in certain respects both humanism and the Renaissance included medieval attitudes ideals.
Renaissance and Printing Bible
• the Bible was the first major book published by the revolutionary invention. • But other books also printed. • Printig of Bible first had a symbolic meaning. It was used as a tool for the acceptance of printing by a larger community. • It also symbolized superiority of Christianity over Islam and it was used for a means for successful propaganda.
The Age of Discovery
• The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, was a period in history starting in the 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century. • During this period Europeans explored and mapped the world. • They established links with Africa, America and Asia in search for alternative trade routes and the trade of gold, silver and spices. • European exploration spanned until accomplishing the global mapping of the world.
• Silk Road is an extensive interconnected network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean world, as well as North and Northeast Africa and Europe. • The Silk Routes (collectively known as the 'Silk Road') were important paths for cultural, commercial and technological exchange between traders, merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers for almost 3,000 years. • In 16th Century, many parts of the silk road were under the control of Ottoman Empire.
The four voyages of Christopher Columbus 1492-1503
Introduction of Modern Science
• I n 1700 s , European world possessed a modern science . • This modern science was a creation of Europe and of Europeans . • The rest of the world such as the Muslims , the Chinese , and all others were unaware of this transformation in Europe . • According to the writer of this article , o nly a few individuals grasped the significance of the momentous events , such as Piri Reis ( d . 1554 ), an Ottoman Turk from Gallipoli .
New Life started in Europe
• Europeans explored new lands and cultures in the world. • Their cosmological view changed. • They took the control of the oceans around the world. • They began to settle in America. • First colonies were founded in Africa and Asia. • Their production was based on capitalist modes of investment. • They began to export textiles to overseas. • They printed books, periodicals and newspapers, this effected their intellectual and practical life. • Universities emancipated themselves from the scholastic thought.
Differentiation of East and West
• Then in 1700,there was a radical difference between the Europe's world, and its contemporary Ottoman, Chinese and other worlds. • Why did this transformation happen in Europe, but not elsewhere? • Was it an anomaly, an accident in history? • Or can we determine its beginning, factors reasons? • Was it perhaps Europe's economic, colonial, and even cultural aggression?
Translation Activities in Europe and Ottoman
• Muslims refused to travel and trade in Europe, to learn Latin, to study and translate European books, to take interest in European achievements. • This attitude radically differed from that of Christian world. • Translations of Arabic scientific and philosophical texts played a crucial role in medieval Europe's intellectual awakening and preparation for the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution.
Why Muslims did not translate
• Europe's contact with Islamic culture became especially intimate in Spain, with translation projects. • Self-reliance: They were the most powerful civilization at that time. • Hostility toward Christian world because of Crusades. • Deevaluation of Western values. • Being self-sufficient in terms of trade, economics and culture.
Ottoman Merchant Marine
Ottoman ruling class dealt with three major goals: 1.preserving the stability of the state, 2.safeguarding the religion, and 3.combating the infidel, They paid little attention to economic expansion other then taxation of newly acquired territories. • A long-distance and seaborne trade was not sufficient. • They could not be aware of European dominance and expansion in the oceans and new lands.
Discovery for Ottomans
• They preferred to conquer known lands rather than to discover new geographies. • In the time of decline, they tried to protect their lands. • Because of this endeavor, they were successful in their aims. They gained a huge geography to govern in 16th Century.
• Some of the new inventions were banned because of different reasons. • Ibrahim Muteferrika — a Hungarian convert who had established the first Ottoman printing press in the Tulip period. • It was closed in 1742 and reopened in 1784.
Neccessity for Scientific and Technological Revolutions!!!
• In fact, Adnan Adivar states in his classic that in mathematics, physics, the natural sciences, and medicine, Ottoman Turkey remained throughout this period immersed in the thick fog of the Middle Ages ("ortacagin koyu dumanlari icinde") from which it began to emerge only toward the end of the 18th century.
• Some intellectuals in that period began to criticize Ottoman rule. • They claimed that Ottoman Empire was in decline, and would collapse. • Lütfü Paşa and Naima were two important figures criticzing Ottoman rule and claiming decline.
The Remedy for Ottoman Decline
• the Ottoman observers of Ottoman decline saw the illness in the corruption of ruling class, but not in the system itself. • The remedy for them was a return to their society's former virtues. • None of them have referred discoveries in Europe and around the world.
• According to the writer of this article, ony a few people had a potential to understand the changing world and discoveries. • Piri Reis (c. 1480-1554) was one of them. • Piri Reis was a famous Turkish cartographer. • At the same time, he was a captain in the sultan's navy. • at the same time he gathered information about the voyages of discovery. • He then produced two remarkable works-a map of the world (1513), and the Kitab-i Bahriye (1526), a book of sailing directions for the Mediterranean.
Why the Scientific Revolution did not occur in Islam?
• Acording to writer, Theocracy and scholasticism were the main reasons of why the Scientific Revolution did not occur in Islam.
Seyyid Hüseyin Nasr
• S. H. Nasr, implies that it is a mistake to examine the Islamic sciences from the point of view of modern sciences and of the "evolutionistic" conception of history. • According to him, Muslims consider history as a series of events and developments .These developments did not affect the principles of Islam. • Muslims are consequently more interested in knowing and "realizing" these principles than in cultivating originality and change virtues. • The Persian scholar points to the cube of the Ka'ba, the stability of which symbolizes the permanent and immutable character of Islam. "
An Ottoman Admiral and Cartographer
• Cartography is the study and practice of making maps (also can be called mapping). • It combines science, aesthetics, and technique. • Cartographer is a person who makes maps.
Piri Reis: Biography
• His full name is Hadji Muhiddin Piri Ibn Hadji Mehmed. • He was an OttomanTurkish Kaptan-ı Derya, geographer and cartographer . • He was born between 1465 and 1470 in Gallipoli on the Aegean coast of Turkey.
• Piri Reis began to serve in the Ottoman navy in his early ages with his uncle Kemal Reis. • He participated in the wars against Spanish, Genoese and Venetian navies. • He participated in the First Battle of Lepanto (Battle of Zonchio) in 1499 and Second Battle of Lepanto (Battle of Modon) in 1500. • When his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gallipoli and began to write his book Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). • •
• By 1516 he was again at sea, as a ship's captain in the Ottoman navy. • He took part in the 1516–17 campaign against Egypt. • In 1517, he was able to show his world map to Sultan Selim I. • In 1521 he finished his Kitab-ı Bahriye. • In 1522 he participated in the siege of Rhodes. • In 1525 he edited his book and presented it to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. • Three years later he presented his second world map to Suleiman.
An Ottoman kalyon, a war ship and naval army personnel.
Painting of Sultan Ahmed III and Ottoman baştardas (small war galleys) in Surname-i Vehbi the Imperial Festival Book commissioned in 1720 by Sultan Ahmed III; it was documented by Vehbi whilst the illustrations were made by Levni and his assistants.
An Ottoman war ship. Miniature taken from Katip Celebi's manuscript Tuhfetü 'l-kibar
• Piri Reis is famous with his maps and charts. • He collected his maps and plans in his book, Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation). • This books contains detailed information on navigation and accurate plans. • These plans were describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea. • •
• The book also includes information about the local people of each country and city, and the curious aspects of their culture. • The book was originally written between 1511 and 1521. • But it was revised with additional information and bettercrafted charts between 1524 and 1525. • Then it was presented as a gift to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. • Piri Reis drew these charts during his travels around the Mediterranean Sea with his uncle Kemal Reis. The revised edition of 1525 has a total of 434 pages and contains 290 maps.
Sections: 1. Section
• Kitab-ı Bahriye has two main sections. • The first section includes information about the types of storms, techniques of using a compass. • It also includes detailed information on ports and coastlines, methods of finding direction using the stars, characteristics of the major oceans and the lands around them. • One of the most important aspects of the book, its special emphasis on the discoveries in the New World by Christopher Columbus and those of Vasco da Gama and the other Portuguese seamen on their way to India and the rest of Asia. • He was very awere of discoveries of New World.
• The second section is manily about geography. • It starts with the description of the Dardanelles Strait and continues with the islands and coastlines of the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ligurian Sea, the French Riviera, the Balearic Islands, the coasts of Spain, the Strait of Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the coasts of North Africa, Egypt and the River Nile, the Levant and the coastline of Anatolia. • This section also includes descriptions and drawings of the famous monuments and buildings in every city. • Besides that it includes biographic information about Piri Reis. He explains the reasons why he preferred to collect these charts in a book. • He thought that drawing a single map is not efficient to display so much information and detail.
Representation of Venice in Kitab-ı Bahriye by Piri Reis
Drawing of Granada in Spain and its surrounding region in Kitab-ı Bahriye by Piri Reis
World Map 1513
• He gained reputation with his world map. • A small part of his first world map (prepared in 1513) was discovered in 1929 at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. • The most surprising aspect of the map was the presence of the Americas on an Ottoman map. • It was the oldest known Turkish map showing the New World. • It was also one of the oldest maps of America in in the world. •
Main Characteristics of the Map
• • The most striking characteristic of the first world map (1513) of Piri Reis, is the level of accuracy. • The position of continents was quite accurate. (particularly the relation between Africa and South America). • Even later maps did not have such accurate positioning and proportions. • Piri Reis' map is centered in the Sahara.
• Piri Reis
Second World Map
• In 1528 Piri Reis drew a second world map. • This map shows Greenland and North America from Labrador and Newfoundland in the north to Florida, Cuba and parts of Central America in the south. •
Second World Map
The End of Piri Reis
• By 1547, Piri Reis had risen to the rank of Reis (admiral). • Piri Reis took Aden (1548) and Muscat (1552) from the Portugese, • But he had to abandon a siege of Hormuz at the end of 1552. • Some Turkish historians, such as Katib Chelebi (Hadji Khalifa), however, claimed that he was bribed by the Portugese. • His opponents, such as the Governor of Basra, Kubad Pasha, complained about Piri Reis to the Sultan. • He was found guilty for the abandonment of Hormuz. • He was also claimed to be disloyal. • Sultan Suleyman was convinced by these claims. • By the order of the sultan, he wa executed in Egypt in 1554.
Strait of Hurmuz