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PREPOSITION

Wisnu Istanto

Objectives
Identify prepositions.
Recognize prepositional phrases,
objects of prepositions, and compound
prepositions.
Differentiate between infinitive phrases
and prepositional phrases.

continued
PP 14-1a

Objectives
Recognize the functions of
prepositional phrases as adjectives and
adverbs. inclusion, exclusion, and
Determine
placement of prepositions.

continued
PP 14-1b

Objectives
Differentiate between commonly
confused prepositions.
Use the correct idiomatic prepositional
combinations.

PP 14-1c

Use of Prepositions
Use a preposition to connect the object of
the preposition (noun or pronoun) to
another word or set of words in a sentence.
Our manager recognizes our strengths and
compensates for our weaknesses.
Top executives spend approximately 90 percent of
their time with others.
The need for constant approval at work can be
counterproductive.

PP 14-2

Common Prepositions
about

behind

during

on

throughout

above

below

except

onto

to

across

beneath

for

opposite

toward

after

beside

from

out

under

in

outside

underneath

against besides

PP 14-3

Compound Prepositions
A compound preposition consists of a
combination of words that is often considered
as one preposition and connects the object of a
preposition to another word or set of words.
Examples
according to
in regard to
apart from
by means of

in place of
ahead of
along with
in spite of
instead of
because of
in front of
out of

PP 14-4a

Compound Prepositions
Examples
I gave the company tour on behalf of my manager.
In addition to Sara, we have five vice presidents in our company.
Because of my positive attitude, Mary chose me as group
leader.

PP 14-4b

Infinitive Phrases/
Prepositional Phrases
An infinitive phrase consists of the word to
followed
a verb.
A leader
has to by
dramatize
a vision for his or her organization.
Employers need to build the trust of their employees.

No verb appears in a prepositional phrase.


Leaders set high goals and objectives for themselves.

PP 14-5

Prepositions and Adverbs


The words by, through, and in can be used as
adverbs without objects. When these same
words take objects, they are prepositions.
Casual Fridays are in. (In is an adverb that
answers the question Where? No object follows
the word in.)

Causal Friday attire is described in the company


handbook. (In is a preposition. In this sentence,
it takes the object handbook.)

PP 14-6

Objects of Prepositions and Pronouns


Use the objective case of a pronoun as the
object of a preposition.
Objective Case

We awarded the Web design project to


them.
Between you and me, I prefer working in
heraccounting
him you
me us them it
the
department.
whom

PP 14-7

Adjective Functions
Use a prepositional phrase as an adjective to
modify a noun or a pronoun.
Place the prepositional phrase after the word
or words being modified or after a linking
verb.
Carol requested an office with a window.
John Garcia from Newsweek will interview our
president next week.
Richard was in Bolivia when he learned about
the merger.

PP 14-8

Adverb Functions
Use a prepositional phrase as an adverb
to modify a verb, an adjective, or
Aanother
leader assists
in problem solving.
adverb.
A motivated employee completes all
assignments with enthusiasm.

PP 14-9

General Placement
Avoid ending a sentence with a
preposition.
Place a preposition before its object in
Avoid
the majority of sentences.
We did not know the appointments he was
scheduled for.
Revised
We did not know the appointments for
which he was scheduled.

PP 14-10a

General Placement
Examples
Avoid
Some of the technology jargon is difficult to relate
to.

Revised

I find it difficult to relate to some of the technology


jargon.

PP 14-10b

Inclusion of Necessary Prepositions


Do not omit a preposition when it is
The
cancelled flight prevented Lynn from
needed.
going to the leadership seminar.

Use separate prepositions when words


cannot be related to one object by the
Doug
has
knowledge of and experience
same
preposition.
with various management techniques.

PP 14-11

Omission of Unnecessary Prepositions


Omit prepositions that do not add clarity to the meaning of a
sentence.
Our
international headquarters are near the San Francisco

airport. (Do not use near to the San Francisco airport.)


Do not repeat a preposition in a sentence if phrases make sense by
using the same preposition.

Our president speaks at national and


international leadership seminars. (The
preposition at does not need to be repeated
before national and international since the same
preposition applies to both phrases.)

PP 14-12

Beside/Besides
Use beside as a preposition to mean
by the side of or not connected with
something.
Darrell
usually sits beside me during
management staff meetings.

Use besides as a preposition to mean


in addition to or other than.

Besides Sherry, the manager promoted


Joyce and Bob.

PP 14-13

Among/Between
Use between to refer to two persons,
places, activities, ideas, things, or
Our
manager distributed the work between
qualities.
the
two
programmers.
Use among to refer to more than two
persons, places, activities, ideas, things,
qualities.
I or
was
among those who voted for Andy as
the team leader.

PP 14-14

Different From
Use the word different followed by the
preposition from when from connects
an object to another word or set of words
inlatest
a sentence.
The
sales figures are different from
what I expected.
Marions leadership style is quite different
from mine.

PP 14-15

Like/As
Use like to mean similarly to or
resembling.
Do not use a verb after the preposition like.
Do not
use like
join clauses. like a true
Stacy
handles
her to
responsibilities
leader.
We are looking for a manager with
leadership
characteristics
Gordons.
Use the conjunction
aslike
or as
if to join

clauses.
Stacy
acts as if she wants to be a leader.
This schedule looks as if it were hastily
developed.
PP 14-16

Off/From

Do not use off of in prepositional


phrases.
Roger
was positive that Edward took the
production results off his desk. (Do not use
off
hissubstitute
desk.)
Doofnot
off for from in certain
Lorraine
borrowed paper from Erica during the
phrases.
meeting. (Do not use off Erica as the
prepositional phrase.)

PP 14-17

In/Into

Use in to indicate a location or position


within
a place.
Please
place
your self-evaluation form in my
mailbox.
Use into to indicate movement or

direction from outside to inside or a


Please
step into
my office or
to form.
discuss your
change
of condition
concerns.
We divided the report into three sections.

PP 14-18

To/Too/Two
Use the preposition to to indicate
She
plans to promote Gale next month.
toward.
Use to as an infinitive or as a part of an
infinitive
phrase.
Use too as
an adverb to indicate an
Please e-mail this message to all the other
excessive
managers. amount or also.

The president made the hiring decision too


quickly.
Our company is moving to Minneapolis too.

PP 14-19a

To/Too/Two
Use two to indicate the number.
We have two outstanding candidates for the
R.B. Rutledge Leadership Award this year.
The selection committee chose two candidates
for the president to interview.

PP 14-19b

Identification of
Idiomatic Expressions
An idiom refers to an expression that has
evolved from general usage through the
years but which has no established rule
for this usage.
Many idioms involve a verb and
preposition combination.

PP 14-20

Accompanied by/
Accompanied by or with

Wesley is accompanied by an interpreter


on his trips to Japan.
Jans leadership award was accompanied
with a check for $500.

PP 14-20

Adapted from/Adapted to

Our performance evaluation is adapted


from a computer software program that
Leon purchased.
The new manager soon adapted to our
companys culture.

PP 14-22

Agree in/Agree on/


Agree with

Oscar agreed in principle with the plan for


the new building.
The staff agreed on the need to lengthen
our customer service hours.
The managers agreed with the employees
about replacing the copy machine.
PP 14-23

Angry at/Angry about/Angry with

Bill is angry about our antiquated e-mail


system.
My manager was angry with Lucy for not
regulating Internet usage in her
department.

PP 14-24

Argue about/Argue for/Argue with


argue about
argue for
argue with
Several employees
evaluation system.

(situation)
(something)
(person)
argued about the

Our manager argued for decision-making


software.
Sometimes I argue with Richard.

PP 14-25

Arrive at/Arrive by

She will arrive at 6 p.m.


They plan to arrive by train.
Peggy plans to arrive in St. Louis by
Monday.

PP 14-26

Concur in/Concur with

Most employees concurred in


recommending that we reorganize our
department.
Do you concur with Zachary about the
lack of leadership in our company?

PP 14-27

Correspond by/Correspond to/


Correspond with
correspond by

(means)

correspond to

(show similarity)

correspond with

(a person by writing)

We feel that correspondence by mail is


too slow.
The expense allocation corresponded to
employee requests.
Our president corresponds with a
leadership consultant in Vail.

PP 14-28

Enter in or on/Enter into


enter in or on

(record)

enter into

(agreement)

Our receptionist enters every visitors


name and address in a log book.
The union and the managers entered into
a binding arbitration agreement.

PP 14-29

Live at/Live
in/Live
on
live at
live in
live on

(address, place)
(area)
(street, amount)

We decided that those lawyers must live at their offices.


Most federal workers live in the Washington, D.C. area.
I could not live on the salary that they offered me during the
interview.

PP 14-30

Reconciled to/ Reconciled with


reconciled to
reconciled with

(to accept)
(to bring into agreement)

We are finally reconciled to the fact that we will


not receive a raise this year.
Our accountant insists on the reconciliation of
our returns with the sales.

PP 14-31

Talk about/Talk for


talk about
talk for

(something)
(time period)

Lorraine did not want to talk about her salary.


The manager talked for an hour about the
reorganization plans.

PP 14-32

Talk to/Talk with


talk to
talk with

(tell something to someone or to


an audience)
(converse with an individual or
small group)

Have you talked to your coworkers about


your concerns?
Loretta and I talked with our manager
about job sharing.

PP 14-33

Wait at/Wait for/Wait on


wait at
wait for
wait on

(location)
(person, thing)
(customer)

Please wait at the front door for a security


clearance.
We waited for our managers response to
the scheduling problem.
Waiting on a customer is always a first
priority for us.
PP 14-34