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DESIGN OF

LEVERS

PRESENTED BY
SANJAY KUMAWAT

WHAT IS LEVER
A lever includes a stiff structure (the lever)
that rotates around a fixed point called the
fulcrum.
OR
A Lever is rigid rod or bar capable of turning
about a fixed point called fulcrum
USED AS A M/C TO LIFT LOAD BY SMALL
EFFORT.

fulcrum

ANATOMY OF THE
LEVER
Lever A bar that is free to move about a
fixed point
Parts of a lever
Fulcrum The fixed point of a lever
Effort Arm The part of the lever that the
effort force is applied to (measured from
the fulcrum to the point at which the force
is applied)
Resistance Arm The part of the lever that
applies the resistance force (measured
from the fulcrum to the center of the

ANATOMY OF THE
LEVER

Levers may be straight or curved


Forces applied on the lever parallel or inclined

Effort arm

load arm

Large load- small effort i.e. l2 should be effort arm and it should
be greater than l1.
Large effort arm may not be possible due to space limitations.
For greater leverage compound levers (straight pieces with
pins

APPLICATION OF LEVERS IN ENGINEERING


PRACTICE

Three Classes of Levers


First Class - fulcrum
between Input and output
Second Class output
between fulcrum and
input
Third Class input
between fulcrum and
output

FIRST CLASS LEVERS


FIRST CLASS LEVERS SEE-SAW LEVERS
1st Class Lever - The fulcrum is located between
the effort arm and the resistance arm.
First class levers can multiply force and distance
Examples: scissors, see-saw, hammers claws, pliers, etc

L2 effort arm > L1- load arm


Mechanical advantage is more than one

FIRST CLASS LEVERS

SECOND CLASS
LEVERS
2ND CLASS LEVERS WHEELBARROW LEVERS

2nd Class Lever - resistance is located between


the effort arm and the fulcrum. These levers
multiply the force but the direction stays the
same.
Example: wheelbarrow, stapler, bottle opener,
finger nail clippers, nut cracker

L2 effort arm > L1- load arm


Mechanical advantage is more than one

SECOND CLASS
LEVERS

THIRD CLASS
LEVERS

3RD CLASS LEVERS - TWEEZERS


3rd Class Lever - The effort force is located between
the fulcrum and the resistance.
The effort arm is
always shorter than the resistance arm so it cannot
multiply the force and the MA is always less than 1.
Examples: rake, hockey stick, broom, shovel, fishing pole,
tweezers, tongs
Not recommended in
engineering practice

L2 effort arm < L1- load arm


Mechanical advantage is less than one

THIRD CLASS
LEVERS

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
The castings must be lifted 200 mm
FORCE MULTIPLIER RATIO (MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE)
In the lever system shown in figure 4 above, the load being lifted is about
three times more than the effort being applied. The load divided by the effort
gives a ratio. This ratio is a force multiplier, or how much more load can be
lifted compared to the effort.
The lever in figure therefore has a force-multiplier ratio of 2.88 (a ratio has no
units of value).
.
EFFORT = 260 N
LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

Example 1
Find the force-multiplier ratio for the lever in figure above.
Force-multiplier ratio

= 750 N
260 N
=

2.88

load
effort

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE
EFFORT = 260 N

LOAD = 750 N
600 mm

Find the distance-multiplier ratio leverage for the lever in figure 4 above.
Movement-multiplier ratio = distance moved by the effort
distance moved by the load
= 600 mm
200 mm
=3

ANALYSIS TO SIMPLE
MACHINE

Example
Find the efficiency of the lever system shown in figure 4.
Efficiency () = Force Ratio 100
Movement Ratio
= 2.88 100
3

= 96

The system shown in figure has an efficiency of nearly 100 per cent. No
system can be 100 per cent efficient; there are always losses. The losses in a
lever system consist of energy lost to friction at the fulcrum of the lever and
the energy lost in strain as the lever bends slightly. In some cases a small
amount of energy will also be lost in the form of sound.

Remember, no machine is 100 per cent efficient. Common


energy losses include heat energy due to friction, strain
energy and sound energy.

DESIGN OF
LEVERS

DESIGN OF
LEVERS

DESIGN OF
LEVERS

DESIGN OF
LEVERS

DESIGN OF
LEVERS

CROSS SECTION OF LEVER


ARM

CROSS SECTION OF LEVER


ARM

CROSS SECTION OF LEVER


ARM

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

TYPES OF
LEVERS
1. HAND LEVERS

TYPES OF
LEVERS
2. FOOT LEVERS

TYPES OF
LEVERS
3. CRANKED LEVERS

TYPES OF
LEVERS
4.LEVER FOR A LEVER SAFETY VALVE

TYPES OF
LEVERS
5. BELL CRANK LEVER

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE

THANK YOU