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Accident Causes and

Prevention
Safety Control Division
Occupational Safety and Health Center
Presented by:

Engr. John Roy A. Elevado


Sr. L.E.O., TSSD, DOLE, RO6

Accident Theory
People

Environment

Equipment

Materials

Accident
An occurrence or event that is:
unexpected,
unforeseen,
unplanned and
unwanted
that may or may not cause damage,
injury, fatality, loss or work stoppage.

Types of Accident
Struck against rigid structure, sharp or
rough objects
Struck by falling or flying objects, sliding
or moving parts
Caught in, on, or between objects
Fall on same level
Fall on different levels
Electrocution
Fire

Common Reasons for


Accidents
Laymans

version:

Oras na niya
Malas niya lang
Tanga kasi
Kasama sa trabaho

NOT REAL CAUSES --- ONLY EXCUSES!

Primary Causes of
Accidents
Unsafe

Act
Unsafe Condition

Unsafe Act
The human action that
departs from a standard or
written job procedure or
common practice, safety
rules, regulations or
instructions.

Unsafe Condition
The physical or chemical
property of a material,
machine or the environment
which could result in injury
to a person, damage or
destruction to property or
other forms of losses.

Systems to Control
Unsafe Acts/Unsafe Conditions
Engineering Control :
Elimination/Minimization
Isolation/Enclosure of the Hazard

Administrative Control :
Safe work practices, Signs and signage, Training and
education, Tool box meeting

Personal Protective Equipment


Last line of defense

Personal Protective
Equipment
Personal protective equipment are variety of
devices and garments designed to serve as
barriers between workers and workplace
hazards.

Head Hazards & Effects


HAZARDS
Impact from falling objects
Bump against rigid
stationary objects
Penetration by sharp objects
Contact with live electrical
conductors
Fire hazards

EFFECTS

Perforation/fracture
of the skull

Electrical shock

Burns

Head Protection
Hard Hat or
Safety Helmet
A rigid device that is
worn to provide
protection for the
head and which is
held in place by a
suitable suspension.

Parts of a Hard Hat


1. The suspension system includes the headband
and straps on the inside of the hat. This system
absorbs and distributes the force of impact.
2. The hard outer shell protects the head from sharp
objects, such as falling tool. It also absorbs part
of the force of impact, since it is somewhat
flexible.
3. The chin strap secures
the hard hat to the
wearers head.
4. The brim redirects the
direction of the falling
object.

Care and Maintenance

Wash with mild soap and water.

Occupational Eye and


Face Hazards
1. Large flying particles and fragments from
operations such as chiseling, coarse grinding,
hammering, metal working and riveting.
2. Dust, fumes, mists, and small particles from
woodworking, light grinding, sanding, metal
working, spot welding, scaling, and paint spraying.
3. Vapors and liquids from solvents and paints.
4. Intense heat and radiation from furnace tending,
electric welding, and oxyacetylene welding and
cutting.

Effects of Occupational
Eye and Face Hazards
EFFECTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Permanent loss of vision


Temporary loss of vision
Inflamed eyes
Skin Burns
Lacerations
Fractures
Broken Teeth

Eye and Face Protection


Protective eye and
face equipment shall
be required where
there is a reasonable
probability of injury
that can be prevented
by such equipment.

Safety Spectacles or Glasses


are primary protective devices intended to
shield the wearers eyes from flying and striking
objects, glare and injurious radiation hazards.

Sideshield is an integral device or an accessory

attached to spectacles that provides side exposure


protection to the eye.

Goggles

are primary protective devices


intended to fit the face immediately surrounding
the eyes.

Unlike safety glasses, goggles provide a secure


shield around the entire eye area.

Face Shield

is a protective device
intended to shield the wearers face, or portions
thereof from striking objects or chemical, heat
and glare hazards.

When Should You Wear a


Hearing Protection Device?
You should wear a hearing protection
device whenever you are exposed to
noise that is 90 decibels or greater
for an 8-hour period of time.
A hearing protection device is
anything that can be worn to reduce
the level of sound entering the ear.

ARMS LENGTH RULE


If two people (with no hearing
impairment) have to raise their
voices or shout to be heard in a
distance of less than an arms
length from each other, the
sound level is potentially
hazardous.

Types of Hearing Protectors


Earplugs
Hearing protectors placed inside the ear to
block out noise. To work effectively, they
should fit snugly into the ear canal.

Types of Hearing Protectors


Earmuffs
A device composed of a headband with two
cushioned ear cups that form a seal around the
outer ear, covering it completely and blocking
out the noise.

RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Acids/Mists
Solvents/Vapors
Gases / Smoke
Dusts/Particulates
Heavy Metals/Fumes

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
Filtration

respirator
Chemical respirator
Air-supplying respirator

FILTRATION
RESPIRATORS or
Mechanical Respirators
screen out dust and some
form of mist. Such filters
need to be replaced at
frequent intervals.
CHEMICAL CARTRIDGE
DEVICES remove
contaminants by passing the
tainted air through material
that traps the harmful
portions. There are specific
cartridges for specific
contaminants.

AIR-SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS
Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
Supplies air from an air tank strapped at
the persons back or from a distant source.

Hand and Arm Hazards


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Temperature extremes
Chemical exposures and splashes
Sharp objects
Fire
Abrasive materials
Live Electrical Conductors

Common Hand & Arm Injury

Burns
Bruises
Abrasions
Cuts
Punctures
Fractures
Amputations

Different kinds of gloves

Metal mesh
gloves resist
sharp edges
and prevent
cuts

Leather gloves
shield your
hands from
rough surfaces
and heat

Vinyl &
neoprene
gloves protect
your hands
against toxic
chemicals

Different kinds of gloves

Rubber gloves
protect you
when working
around
electricity.

Welders
gloves protect
your hands
from heat and
flames

Different kinds of gloves

Latex disposable
gloves are used to
protect your hands
from germs and
bacteria

Lead-lined gloves are


used to protect your
hands from radiation
sources.

Cotton gloves
help grasp
slippery objects
and protect
against slivers,
dirt, moderate
heat or cold.

Foot Hazards
Falling or rolling objects
Sharp objects
Live Electrical conductors
Hot surfaces
Wet, slippery surfaces

Common Foot and Leg Injury


Fractures
Punctures
Burns
Cuts
Amputations
Electrocution

FOOT PROTECTION
Safety Shoes
Toe cap
footwear protects
your toes from
being crushed by
falling objects.

Mid-sole steel
plate protects the foot

from punctured hazards.

Safety Shoes and Boots

ELECTROSTATIC
DISSIPATING
footwear conducts
static electricity to
floors that are
grounded.

ELECTRICAL
RESISTANCE footwear
are insulated with tough
rubber to prevent shocks
and burns from electricity.

FALL PROTECTION
EQUIPMENT
Fall Restraint System
Fall Arrest System

Fall Restraint System


Travel Restriction System
- is an assembly
composed of body belt
and proper accessories
that prevent a worker
from traveling to an
edge from where he or
she may fall like leading
edges or roof.

Fall Arrest System


Fall arrest system are designed to
minimize
stress
forces
on
an
employee's body in the event of a fall,
while providing sufficient freedom of
movement to allow work to be
performed.

Components of a personal fall


arrest system
Rope/Lanya
rd

Full-Body Harness
It consists of straps
passed over the
shoulders, across the
chest, and around the
legs. In a fall, a full
body harness protects
you more than a
safety belt, because it
distributes the force of
impact over a greater
area of your body.
L

Resistance of employees
to PPE
Discomfort
Inaccurate
Lack

risk perception

of education and training

LIMITATIONS OF PPE
1.

The hazard still exists.

2.

A defective PPE offers no protection

3.

The PPE may introduce additional


hazard.

4.

Most PPE are not for continuous use.

5.

Improper wearing may not give


maximum protection.

6.

It may transfer hazard to another


location.

SUMMARY
For any PPE to be effective
It must be selected based on use
Employees must be trained on its
use
It must be used and worn
It must be maintained.

Tool Box Meeting (TBM)


a 10-15 minute on-the-job safety and health
awareness meeting focusing usually on the
current activities of the group to keep
everybody informed and alert on work-related
accidents and illnesses and their causes.

Benefits of a TBM

It addresses actual safety and health


concerns on the job or in the site
It provides good opportunity for
supervisors to know the mental and
physical conditions of workers
It also provides good opportunity for
management to communicate its
commitment to safety

Benefits of a TBM

It contributes to the training and


education of workers
It prevents the recurrence of
previous accidents
It is a proven technique in inculcating
safe work habit

Schedule
When:

Everyday before the start of work

Where:

Preferably at the specific site of the activity

Who:

All workers in the site must attend their specific TBM

Who conducts the TBM?


Usually the supervisor,
foreman or leadman (the
project manager, safety officer,
nurse may serve as guests)

Remember!
1.

It is very important for those


conducting the meetings to solicit
input from those in attendance.

2.

Comments from workers in


attendance should be taken seriously.
If they are, workers will be more
likely to offer their suggestion at all
safety meetings.

Summary

Tool box meeting is for safety and


health concerns of the group
Reminders on hazards in the current
activity
Statement of safety precautions
Should be presided by the foreman,
leadman, supervisor
Solicit comments and inputs from
workers