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OCEAN ENGINEERING - ITS

Welding
Metallurgy
Nur Syahroni, ST., MT.

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT)
Diagram

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT) Diagram

Isothermal heat treatments


are not the most practical

Most heat treatments for


steels involve the continuous
cooling of a specimen to room
temperature

An isothermal transformation
(TTT) diagram is valid only for
conditions of constant
temperature,

TTT diagram must be


modified for transformations
that occur as the temperature
is constantly changing, that is
called CCT diagram

CCT diagram is applicable for


the case of welding

carbon steel with 0.76%wt C


Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT) Diagram

For eutectoid
composition, normally
bainite will not form
because all the
austenite will have
transformed to pearlite

Thus, the region


representing the
austenitepearlite
transformation
terminates just below
the nose as indicated
by the curve AB
carbon steel with 0.76%wt C
Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT) Diagram

For the continuous


cooling of a steel alloy,
there exists a critical
quenching rate, which
represents the minimum
rate of quenching that
will produce a totally
martensitic structure

This critical cooling rate,


when included on the
continuous
transformation diagram,
will just miss the nose at
which the pearlite
transformation begins

carbon steel with 0.76%wt C


Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT) Diagram

Carbon and other alloying


elements also shift the
pearlite (as well as the
proeutectoid phase) and
bainite noses to longer
times, thus decreasing the
critical cooling rate

Find the final phases


produced when the AISI
4340 steel is heated up to
eutectoid temperature and
cooled down to the ambient
temparature with cooling
rate as follows:
0.005oC/s, 0.01oC/s, 0.2oC/s
5oC/s and 10oC/s

Alloy steel AISI 4340


Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Continuous Cooling
Transformation (CCT) Diagram
Final microstructures are
resulted from following
cooling rates:
0.005oC/s

(very slow)

Ferrite pro-eutectoid + Pearlite


0.01oC/s

(rather slow)

Martensite + Ferrite proeutectoid + Pearlite + Bainite


0.2oC/s

Martensite + Ferrite proeutectoid + Bainite


5oC/s

Martensite + Bainite
10oC/s

Martensite

Alloy steel AISI 4340


Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

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Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

Because bainitic steels


have a finer structure,
they are generally
stronger and harder
than pearlitic ones

They exhibit a desirable


combination of strength
and ductility

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

11

Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

Martensite is very hard,


but so brittle
To enhance ductility and
toughness of martensite,
tempering can be
performed
Temper heat treatment is
carried out by heating
martensite up to the
temperature below
eutectoid (250-650oC) for
a specified time period
By diffusional process,
tempered martensite
is formed by reaction:
Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

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Mechanical Properties of
Carbon Steels

The microstructure of
tempered martensite
consists of extremely small
and uniformly dispersed
cementite particles
embedded within a
continuous ferrite matrix

This is similar to the


microstructure of
spheroidite except that the
cementite particles are
much, much smaller

Tempered martensite may


be nearly as hard and strong
as martensite, but with
substantially enhanced
ductility and toughness

Tempering was carried out at 594oC

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

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Review of Phase Transformations


and Mechanical Properties for
Carbon Steels

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

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Review of Phase Transformations


and Mechanical Properties for
Carbon Steels

Welding Technology & Inspection (MO-091333)

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